A Discussion On The Concept Of Religious Tolerance In Ancient Rome

Table of Contents

This is the opening

Religious Tolerance In Ancient Rome

In conclusion

Introduction of topic

Roman Religion has always been flexible due to its polytheistic nature. There were countless spiritual practices because there was no rigid structure or dogmatic ritual. Despite this, the elites controlled the discourse and set the boundaries for what was acceptable. Romans believed that unacceptable religious practices belonged to superstitio — a supernatural power which distorted the minds of men. We will learn that this concept wasn’t a constant in Roman life. The Roman state struggled to create a national identity within the context of an ever-expanding empire. This meant that these practices were perceived as being dangerously subversive.

Religious Tolerance in Ancient RomeAnalysis will reveal how, even though the Roman state did not act on all religions considered superstitious, it did take action against those that were perceived as being outside the scope of acceptable religious tolerance within the context that the Roman state was struggling to create a central empire identity.

Roman Religion had loose structures which enabled complex webs connecting people and cultures in the Republic. Mary Beard has pointed out that the rhetorical word used to define ‘acceptable practices’, religio, bound people together and with their gods organically. This bind was formed by two principles that were mutually inclusive and illustrates the fluidity of Roman Religion.

The polymorphism of paganism allowed different people to worship different gods. This meant that there was no requirement for individuals or groups to adhere to a particular form of worship or deity. This polytheistic aspect of Roman religion allows Romans to worship several gods simultaneously. Catullus’ prayer to Diana by the Roman poet illustrates the way polymorphic, polytheistic Paganism helped create a religious atmosphere in Rome that was free of dogmas and dogma.

However, it is also important to establish that Paganism included a strong element of belief. According to Charles King, the belief of Romans was fundamental for their prayer and implicitly in the worship of deities who formed the Roman Pantheon. Combining dogma-free beliefs, polymorphism, and polytheism, we can view Roman Paganism in a way that is largely non-restrictive and appeals directly to individuals.

This system of beliefs, which seemed to be inclusive, was, at times, subjected to regulation. To achieve this, political elites used rhetoric about ‘Roman Identity’. Mary Beard claims that elites set the limits of what was acceptable based on their personal views about belief and worship. Here is when the difference between superstitio versus religio becomes critical. In contrast to its organically binding’ equivalent religio, superstitio was used to describe practices that were considered to be “un-roman”, or below the’standards,’ of the Empire.

The word superstitio means literally “standing up” and refers to beliefs that are perceived as defining an individual’s identity. This is not to say that the terms were not fluid, but rather that they did not reflect the official criteria of the state for religious persecution. They do, however, show the prejudices that people in particular localities held. While magic was considered by many to be “an inferior religion”, its secret use spread throughout the Roman Empire.

We usually associate Roman paganism with votive offerings, festivals publics, etc. These public and collective aspects are all a part of the definition and organic purpose of religio by these elites. Two Vestal Virgins were publicly condemned after the Battle of Cannae, showing how Romans used religious rites to promote social cohesion.

Simply having these terms in existence gave elites the ability to use them freely to attack or regulate religious systems which they considered important for themselves, their state, and/or the nation. We will see in this way how supertitio is used to justify and promote the state’s political motives for controlling and persecuting religious systems.

In Rome, the Bacchanalia case shows how superstition was used as a tool to influence political concerns about organized religion and then condemned. Bacchanalia’s political impact is apparent almost immediately. The cult transcended gender and class to enlighten disparate Romans. Politicians likely saw in this limitless inclusivity and secrecy the power of group-consciousness that could act against State norms or the state itself. This would not have worked at a moment when the Roman Empire grew rapidly and required all citizens to show loyalty.

John A. North claims that the Bacchanalia was the first religious group, in reference to its secrecy. Politicians were concerned by the idea of a religious group that was independent and had no authority. The Senate Decree that regulates the Bacchanalia reveals this fear of Bacchic institutionalism. It places a particular emphasis on treasurers, and the organization of cults in general.

The fear of external identity formation is also an implicit fear or condemnation superstition. The political elite could easily have thought of the Bacchanalias as outside the realms of religion. Dionysus as the Gods of Wine, Madness and Theatre was often worshipped through secret alcohol-fueled festival and orgies. Livy says in his condemning account that these rites are a radical departure from Rome’s traditional, decorous form of worship.

However, the fact the Bacchanalias never led to violent acts by citizens suggests the real reason for the regulation of them was somewhere else. North suggests that it was likely a “propaganda’ to reinforce the political class’s rhetorical authority over religious identity, during an era of geographical expansion. The treatment given to the Bacchanalia indicates that the state feared institutions capable of forming political identities.

The Roman elite was also afraid of superstition and the irrational, as they tried to maintain social cohesion. Roman politicians were worried about Christianity’s power to change alliances. Christianity, a monotheistic faith, required that its followers withdraw their spiritual allegiance to the Emperor for God’s sake. The Romans were alienated by the Christian religion and its worship, which was a clear subversive political force. It is not hard to imagine how Romans could have perceived the belief that transubstantiation was a part of subversive magic designed to separate itself from common Paganism.

The Bacchanalia and Christianity are both rigid systems of structures and belief that aim to influence followers’ attitudes and identity. Pliny, in a letter to Trajan, calls Christianity “superstition”, urging that “contagion’s” spread be “stopped”. Pliny uses rhetoric that describes Christianity as “intrinsically anti-Roman”. Yet the political element of his condemnation can be seen when he states that after repeated interviews, only those that “persisted”, in asserting their Christian Identity, were “ordered execution”. The Romans were more concerned about the ability of Christianity to penetrate minds and cultures than its particular beliefs.

The Roman intolerance towards religion is clearly rooted in political fears of ancient Rome. Romans felt uncomfortable because organized religions could institutionalize their beliefs and help shape identities. Roman political fear was also heavily influenced by the fluidity of their skepticism. We have seen this with Christianity and Bacchanalia. We can say, therefore, that Roman political fears were primarily influenced by their fear of the irrational.

ConclusionIt is therefore fair to conclude that religious regulation in the Roman era was intrinsically linked to the fear of the political elite of systems which institutionalized identities and, hence, shifted loyalties. These fears were expressed in a fluid language that aimed to criticize the un-roman – pointing out the conflict between institutionalized beliefs and national identities.

Poems In Honor Boer Wars

I will analyze the styles and techniques used in both poems. The two poems will be compared, and I will also include some samples of texts from each poem to help illustrate what I am saying. The two texts that I’ll be analysing are “The Drummer Hodge”, by Thomas Hardy, as well as “Remains”, by Simon Armitage.

Thomas Hardy’s poem titled ‘Drummer HODGE’ was first published in 1899. The First Boer War was over and the Second Boer War was about to begin. The Second Boer War saw over 20,000 British soldiers killed, while more than 900 went missing and were never found. ‘Drummer Hodge,’ was written for these soldiers. Simon Armitage’s ‘Remains,’ published in 2008 was part of The Not Dead. The series is based on testimonies from ex-soldiers. The poem is not rhymed, as opposed to ‘Drummer hodge’. This helps the flow of the poem and its theme. The fragmentation makes it seem as if the reader is a participant in the conversation. This is a great way to engage the reader, as it makes them feel like a participant in what’s happening.

The ABAB rhyming patterns is repeated throughout the poem. It is a good way to show the theme. The rhyme scheme and syllable counts help create the beat of the poem. This reinforces the drum idea. The first, third and second stanzas use the present tense while the second is written in the past. This helps to convey the natural tone and the story that the poet is telling. The title for this poem is The Drummer Hodge. The abbreviation Roger is Hodge. Roger was a nickname for an English agricultural labourer. Hodge represents Second Boer War victims, as Hardy uses a name which suggests an ordinary working man.

The next step is to analyze the language and tone used in the poem. The tone is hostile. This could mean that the poet is hostile towards the Boer War. Hodge may also feel resentful that he is buried somewhere ‘foreign,”strange,’ and not in his native country. This poem uses a lot imagery. Each line begins with an image of earth and ends up with stars, like a burial. The idea that the terrain is strange and the stars are repeated is also emphasized. The’strange-looking stars’ could refer to the alienness of the country that the young drummer will be buried in. Hodge becomes a part of the earth where he lies buried. The stars help to give the impression of an expansive space where you can easily lose yourself. This is to illustrate how Hodge’s passing is eclipsed by the significance of war. The young drummer, if the war hadn’t broken out, would have died on British soil in his native land where he belonged and not abroad.

The poem ‘Remains is split up into eight stanzas. Seven of them are in unrhymed format, while the last stanza only has two lines. This stanza stands out because it is shorter than the rest. This helps to emphasize the fact that he cannot forget what he has done in killing an innocent man. The first four verses of this piece focus on the shooting, killing, and effects that the murder has on the poet. This poem’s title is “Remains.” It could refer to the body parts of the victim or it could mean that guilt is still lingering in the speaker’s mind. The next part of the poem is written in a monologue. The poem is written as if it were spoken directly by the speaker, giving the impression of a natural and fast-paced speech. There is no obvious rhyme scheme and the enjambment in some stanzas shows that this is a story being told naturally.

The next step is to examine the language of the poem. The speaker tells us his story in this poem, which is a narrated anecdote. The speaker uses slang throughout the entire poem. The poem begins with two lines in past tense. It then switches to present tenses for the remaining lines. This gives the poem a more immediate tone. The imagery is graphic and brutal. The images used to show the killing are brutal and graphic.

Both poems have themes of conflict and death. Drummer Hodge is a poem that focuses on the Boer Wars during which young drummers played a role and died in an unwelcoming place. The story of ‘Remains” is about a soldier’s struggle with his wartime experiences and the way that the killing of a man haunted the rest in his life. Both poems use graphic imagery and descriptions of war and death. One other similarity is the fact that neither poet has been to war. As a result, their poems are based of the experiences of others. The tone of the poem allows for a story. One of the main differences is that ‘Drummer Hodge uses rhyming techniques to create drumming effects throughout the entire poem.’ ‘Remains” does not contain any rhymes at all, which helps to reinforce the story-telling idea. The structure of the poem ‘Remains’begins to crumble at the conclusion, whereas that of the poem ‘The Drummer Hodge’has a much more regular pattern. Last but not least, ‘Drummer hodge’ is a past war, the Second Boer War. ‘Remains,’ however, is a modern conflict.

Both poems are a mixture of different styles, tones and languages that entice and inform the reader about the real experiences of the people who lived through these wars. Both poems have many similarities, but also some differences.

How Livy Saved Rome From The Polybian Cycle

Polybius argues that “the inexorable march of nature is all we need to convince us of this proposition” (The Rise of the Roman Empire). 57). He argues that the gradual succession of Roman constitutions promoted political stability. Livy argues that, contrary Polybius’ theory, the political evolution of a nation is unpredictable. Livy demonstrates in The Rise of Rome that political revolutions change the moral and social behavior of the public. Polybius didn’t believe in the destined nature of political change, but Livy does. Livy immortalizes certain historical events in order to highlight the importance moral values.

We should first recognize that Livy’s and Polybius’ approach to writing Rome’s history is similar. They want to explain the rise of Rome as a world power and see it as an unprecedented historical event. Polybius describes Rome’s “irresistible ability to achieve the goals that it sets for itself”. Livy aims to “celebrate…the greatness of Rome” (18) (The Rise of Rome). They show that Rome’s superiority and success is due to a government that functions well. Polybius explains the different forms of states in a logical way, while Livy provides a broad monumentum that gives broader insight into human history. However, their beliefs and methodologies about what motivates political changes are different.

Polybius’ natural cycle of changes in government types, compared to Livy’s tales, simplifies Rome’s political turmoil. Polybius is convinced that mob-rule will eliminate aristocracy. Livy ascribes, however the rape Lucretia was the singular event that triggered republican dawn (I). 59). Polybius claims that in a democratic system, “the citizens are not willing to install a king once again because they fear the injustices of the past monarchs” 9). Livy contradicts that statement, stating that most people weren’t prepared for a radical government change despite Brutus. The Roman senators were afraid “the plebs could in their terror accept a monarchical government” (The Rise of Rome, 2). 9). Livy’s writings are not only biased, but also dramatic. Livy’s theory is universally applicable, but he focuses on Roman-directed change.

Livy has a certain obsession for Rome’s enormous achievements. This is contrary to Polybius who presents his theory in a neutral manner. Livy focuses on the achievements of the powerful and ignores their plight. He believes that ordinary citizens are minor players and have little ambition in politics. Natalia King explains that Livy exemplifies the power of the individual to affect real change. He exaggerates the strength of military leadership and select individuals’ brilliance. He describes the transition from monarchy into republic as an elite member of Roman society transferring power. In the early days of the Roman Republic, members of royal families bearing the name Tarquin were not only present in the State, but were even its heads. 2). The republic was nothing but a way to consolidate power in the hands aristocrats. Livy, with her inherent bias towards the powerful, cannot be reconciled with Polybius.

Livy pays attention more to powerful men and also preserves personal achievements and failures whereas Polybius’s cycle of changes overshadows it. Polybius tries to find universal principles that can guide political change. The theory of the cyclical governments is an attempt to define a general causal pattern. It aims to explain “by what means and which political institutions the world almost fell under the Rome’s rule” (The Rise of the Roman Empire. 2). He doesn’t focus on specific individuals who made drastic changes to Rome. Livy immortalizes important episodes in order to demonstrate the virtues of Rome. To emphasize Rome’s immortality, he recite the heroic deeds performed by powerful leaders. Livy quotes Camillus who says that Rome was “where the unearthing of human heads once marked the spot where the empire would be and the head of the globe” (The Rise of Rome V. 54). Livy argues that Rome’s natural decay is not happening. He thinks that a leader ambitious enough to be able to inspire a large section of society into action is more likely to succeed. Livy believes that human activity is more important than state constitutions in influencing political change.

Livy, however, would disagree that “the internal evolution [second] is a regular process” (The Rise of the Roman Empire). 57). Polybius depicts that as long the people’s social and economic responsibilities don’t reach a threshold, no natural changes will occur in government. In Livy’s historical account, the birth of monarchy or republic was a delicate battle between antagonistic parties: the ruling class and the new ambitious class. Each side developed strategies to gain the loyalty and support of the plebeians. Kings used religious symbols and built monuments as a way to gain the support of the gods. Numa, as an example, created a fictional goddess in order to win over the people (The Rise of Rome, I). 19). By using these techniques, the ruling classes created an aura based on factuality that brainwashed plebeians to believe they were entitled to their current state. The plebeians were able to gain hope and motivation by listening to a leader who was able to use persuasive rhetoric. Brutus, for example, in his sentimental speech “stood up the audience to a level of fury so that they revoked King’s authority and ordered Lucius Tarquinius’ exile” (I. 59). Livy describes the origins both of monarchy as well as republicanism. He highlights the different conflicts, most of which were caused by conflicting interests.

Polybius has a different view of how the monarchy came into being. Livy’s Romulus myth shows how Romulus defeated a merciless power competition. Romulus became the ruler by divine command, not using his “authority to support the opinions of the majority”. 6). Polybius does not agree with Livy and believes the first monarch has to embody superiority and nobleness. Tarquinius Superbus and Tarquinius Superiscus were ruled by jealousies between their families. The clash of interests among kings, senators and their respective interests led to the fall of the monarchy. Tullius, for example, satisfied citizens’ demands while angering senators. Tarquinius Superbus gained the approval of senators of less powerful families. However, he “let the custom of consulting the senate about all issues” (The Rise of Rome). 49). The Roman monarchy was only able to survive because the power was carefully distributed between the king and the senate. The reasons that the monarchy fell apart aren’t as obvious as Polybius describes the transition from monarchy towards aristocracy.

Livy disagrees with Polybius on many points, including the founding of monarchy. Livy disagreed with Polybius when he said “the main factor that determines whether a government succeeds or fails is the state’s constitution.” (The Rise of the Roman Empire). 2). For the establishment of a republic, leadership and oratory were considered more important. Senators used political rhetoric to hypnotize the people and stay in power. They began wars and won. Peace and external conflict were short-lived, but they distracted the people from their own problems. Marcus Furius Camillus, an aristocratic ruler, catered primarily to the interests of upper-classes. The senate pleaded with him to stay in Rome when the Gauls invaded (The Rise of Rome v. 49). The plebeians did not like him and he was harshly punished, but he saved Rome from a dire situation. “[W]hen he arrived, the whole of society came to welcome him…and he was greeted with a triumph far more grand than usual” (V. 23) because he was essential to Rome’s existence. Livy shows that a politician who is savvy must have personal qualities to succeed.

Polybius did not accurately describe the Roman political battles as he simplified them in his simplistic outline. Polybius’ cycle of political power is too broad to explain the beginnings of monarchy or republic. The abolition may have benefitted the plebeians but the political arena remained dominated the powerful and wealthy. The senators were in a position of advantage after exiling the kings. The Falisci recognized the senators saying, “Senators. You and your commander defeated in a battle that neither man nor god can be angry with, we submit ourselves to” (V.27). But the masses were rarely satisfied by “slaying enemies and plundering their great wealth” (V.21). They were not exceptional fighters just because they were willing to “do anything” in order to gain a reputation of valour within their country (The Rise of the Roman Empire – VI). 52). The republic forced Romans to engage in constant war because “the freedom of the plebs is better served by war than peace, and between enemies than citizens” (The Rise of Rome II). 23). In this case, the mob’s attention would be drawn to decay and corruption within the country. Livy’s political change was not driven by the natural progress. These changes were dependent on the efforts of qualified rulers to maintain an empire that was rapidly expanding.

Livy’s interest in the social and political changes that were brought about by the revolutionaries was greater than Polybius. Livy was unable to support Polybius’ theory about cyclic revolutions and changes under Augustan imperialism. Livy remained faithful to the Roman nationalist atmosphere under Augustus by making Rome seem indestructible and eternal. In his rich history of characters in the Roman show, Livy focuses on the Ara Pacis, not Polybius. His books were a monument that he created to protect a moral sense against the decay of Rome and time.

A Gold Rush: Hardships For Asian Living In America

An opening statement

Since I was a part Asian-Americans for about a year, I had to face hardships which only Asians living in America can understand. As I reflected on those times, i wondered what the first Asians in America had to go through. The first Asians were the Chinese gold rushers who arrived in California. While they faced different issues than Asian Americans today, many of their problems are the same.

Contrary the popular belief, it is not true that China was always a powerful empire. China, although it was a major power in Asia, was still outmatched by the western powers. The English Empire was at its height and had completely dominated China. British merchants used Pearl River to trade opium from 1820 to 1830. Opium was influential in China. Many Chinese became opium-addicted, which increased the demand. Because of the increased opium consumption, British trading companies were able rob China of more resources. It was then debated whether opium should be legalized. English traders still traded with Chinese criminals, despite Chinese government’s strong opposition to the opium trade. This led to a more severe ban on opium. The Chinese government forbade ships from bringing opium into their waters. Eventually, this meant that opium cargo vessels could not land. The First Opium War began as a result of the naval conflict. The Royal Navy had no chance against the Chinese Navy. Chinese falsely reported the destruction of their ships to boost morale. The West’s cannons tore through the Chinese hulls, despite the fact that they were outnumbered. China, therefore, lost the First Opium War and Second Opium War against England and France. England and France punished China with the burden of war expenses and by accepting more European products. China then experienced a recession. The local people were affected by the foreign competition in business and high taxes. Chinese peasants suffered a lot from economic hardships. In China, rebellions erupted and people felt oppressed and unhappy. Chinese people were compelled to find new homes and leave their home country.

James W. Marshall stumbled upon a shiny item on John Sutter’s property. Marshall, the foreman of Sutter’s Farm, examined the shiny object and discovered that it was gold. Sutter, to his surprise, was horrified by the discovery that gold had been found on his farm. John Sutter was in California to establish an agriculture empire. He feared the gold would attract uncontrollable numbers of people, making him unable to realize his dream. He kept the gold news a secret. Evidently, Sutter did not keep the news from spreading. Sutter’s Mill in Coloma California spread rumor to San Francisco. Samuel Brannan, San Francisco’s newspaper publisher and merchant published a story in March of 1848 about the discovery by Samuel Brannan that gold had been found in Coloma. This was after he set up a gold prospecting shop. He shouted “Gold!” as he walked through the streets. Gold! Gold from the American River! California was liberated from Mexican control. California was ceded to the United States by the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Local Californians went out to find gold and opened businesses so that they could accommodate the influx of gold seekers. Californians divided their labor. Women would run the business, with boarding services being the most common, while men went to find gold. Oregonians, Sandwich Islanders, and Latin Americans (Mexicos, Perus, Chiles, etc.), were among the first to arrive in California. California was flooded with people. The “Argonauts” were the names given to these miners, who were also known as “forty eighters”, after the famous travelers from Greek mythology. These miners found success in the majority of cases. They found up to 15 times as much gold as the East’s prospectors. Some found it so lucrative that they were able to earn a six year wage in only six months. Rumors spread like wildfire as these success stories were being made. New York Herald published its first gold report on August 19. 1948. This brought the new gold frenzy to the East Coast of America. The second wave of miners was created. The “Forty-Niners”, as they are known, flooded the area. Many others also came, but the majority were Americans. Among this large group were the Chinese. California was a popular destination for many Chinese because of the poor conditions in China. The Chinese are the first Asians to arrive in America by mass. America experienced many social changes. As a result, the population skyrocketed and new towns were created. San Francisco grew to about 250,000 in 1850, from a population of 1,000 in 1848. California became one the most developed areas in the West thanks to the growth of its population and the wealth it gained from gold mining and consumer consumption. With the great advances in American culture came one of today’s greatest challenges for Americans and other countries: racism.

Chinese miners were initially living in small towns or camps, as all other miner communities. But times have changed. The Foreign Miner’s License Act was responsible for the migration of nearly the entire Chinese population to San Francisco. Racism and urbanization pushed Chinese into a single ethnic neighborhood. Chinatown was the name of this neighborhood. Chinatown is densely-populated, as it’s one of the few regions in the city which allowed Chinese land ownership. The majority of Chinese men who crossed the Pacific were male. Many women, even those who wanted to go on the trip but were refused due to United States policy. A large majority of Chinese people in Chinatown live in poverty. They relied on small shops in Chinatown or on jobs at the mines and railroads. Although Chinatown’s small population was thriving, its quality of living was low. Ah Toy was probably the richest Chinese woman. She was an American prostitute, who gained most of the money she had by seducing a ship captain while on her journey to the United States. Her attractive height and figure made her a popular high-priced prostitute. She started a chain of prostitution in Chinatown that trafficked Chinese girls. It is easy to draw conclusions about the Chinese culture by looking at the fact that their richest member was a highly successful human trafficker and prostitute. In the end, we see that Chinese people live very modest lives, and that Chinatown is not the vibrant ethnic marketplace that we think of China as.

After 1851 most Chinese gold-seekers start arriving in California. Initially, however, they did not face discrimination. They were welcomed with open arms. The Chinese are very passionate about their work, thanks to Confucius and Chinese culture. The humble beginnings and the difficult economic conditions of China heightened their passions. The Chinese immigrants were driven by a desire to earn money and gain wealth. They did not want the hard journey they had made across Pacific Ocean for nothing. Chinese immigrants worked wherever they were able to find work. The Chinese were willing to accept work even if it was relatively low-paying. They were therefore well received by other Californian miners. The Chinese miners were a rarity among the ambitious miners. While the other miners came here in order to become rich, the Chinese only wanted to survive. They accepted the menial jobs that others refused to accept. They were therefore indispensable as workers. The miners were in need of cooks and carpenters. Governor McDougal described them as “ones of the most deserving of our newly-adopted citizens”. Californians praised them for their hard work, grit and determination. Chinese people were very happy with their home. America was not a land of wars and poverty but one that offered new opportunities. After their acceptance, they had nothing to complain about.

The peace that was enjoyed by the miners could not last. The miners were not happy when the gold was exhausted. These ambitious miners became frustrated when they did not find the precious metal they were searching for. The gold ran out, and as feelings turned bitter, racism appeared. People began to blame each other. As Americans were the majority, the people began to scream racist slogans. California belonged only to Americans. Since this cry was in line with California’s attempts at statehood, the racism against Chinese grew. Racism was easy to perpetrate against the Chinese because they were very different. Chinese miners wore and looked very differently than Western miners. William Perkins wrote that the Chinese were dressed “mostly in the national dress: petticoats reaching up to the knees; big jackets lined or quilted in sheep or dog skin, and enormous basket hats made from split bamboo.” Chinese immigrants were therefore the most affected by anti-foreigner law. The state legislature passed a law in 1850 requiring foreign miners to have a license. The name of the law suggests that foreign miners were required to obtain a permit. All non US citizens had to pay $20 per month. The law was repealed later, but it made many Chinese give up on their mining dreams. Many Chinese were left penniless in the miner camps and fled to San Francisco. San Francisco was the first city to have a Chinatown. Discrimination was so severe that the Chinese could not buy land, marry Caucasian girls, or even receive an education. Chinatown had to be created. Chinatown was inevitable. Chinese communities were vulnerable if divided; united, Chinese could find support in their neighboring countries. San Francisco on the other had to deal with a lot of burdens in caring for the foreigners. It was considered a failure. But not before Bigler had used the Chinese as a political punching-bag. He accused the Chinese of “contract “coolie”, “avaricious”, or “ignorant moral obligations”. Bigler’s comments led to a renewed foreign miner’s tax. The new tax on foreign miners was $4 per month, which is a much more lenient amount. Americans still hated China despite the new tax. In 1853, Australia discovered gold. California was thrown into a panic. Californians and migrants moved south to find better luck. Prices of all products skyrocketed, including butter and houses, due to a sudden drop in consumer demand. Californians were very upset by this. The Californians who remained needed to make more money so they could survive. In response, laborers began to strike. However, it backfired on East Coast Investors. Investments in West industries dropped dramatically, resulting in a loss-lose situation both for businesses and residents. Unemployment suddenly hit the West industries hard, and both businesses and residents of the Far West were affected. Once again, the Chinese were targeted. Due to the fact that Chinese workers were paid cheaply and they weren’t Americans, accusations began flying. They were accused by the Chinese of taking away jobs from honest and hard-working Americans, as well as sending back their earnings. They were viewed by some as Asian leeches sucking American blood. These people were also annoyed by the Chinese’s frugal ways. William Perkins states in El Campo de lobos Sonoaraenses o: Three Years Residency in California that, “they consume a small amount of food and merchandise in the country”. They bring rice, which is their main staple, in large quantities. The whites were enraged by their frequent remittances as well as their thrifty consumption.

As racism grew, so did the number of racists. As soon as antiasiatic feelings began to rise, Chinese started accusing Americans of racism in Sacramento through unions. Governor Bigler was told, “We’re not the degraded people you want us to be.” However, they failed to make any impact. Racism grew stronger. The 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act, California’s first immigration ban for a specific group of ethnicity, was the peak of Chinese racist sentiment.

ConclusionThe Pilgrims and the first Asians to arrive in America were similar. The economic and home security of the Asians in their homeland was threatened. Both made a long journey to start anew. Both groups struggled to survive. Due to ignorance and racial stereotypes, the first Asians in America were denied the American Dream. Many Chinese Americans suffered because of ignorance and jealousy. It was the beginning of Asian discrimination. We will be faced with a much bigger mountain than college when we arrive in America. Even though our lives may seem difficult, we should not forget those first Chinese who experienced this form of racism. They were persecuted and denied entry to their new home despite the fact that they had made a dangerous and long journey across the ocean. Most of the Chinese who were brave enough to stand up against this racism and try to improve the world are those that we should honor. Later, Asian racism lessened and kids like us could dream of living in the USA.

Woman Question At The Victorian Times

Victorians took a keen interest in the social roles of men and women, especially those which were regarded as customary. This fascination led to the “Woman Question”, which was a discussion that addressed issues of gender inequality in education, politics, and economics. Men and women were split on this issue. Some thought their roles were divinely appointed and that to bring women up to equal standing with men was to go against God. Other women saw subordination as the most heinous form of slavery. During this period, feminist movements began to gain popularity and public recognition. The feminist movement began to gain momentum and recognition during this time.

In the end, men couldn’t continue to advance in life while ignoring women. The majority of the population took a long time to understand this. Women’s voting rights were granted in 1918, after the first petitions had been submitted to the British Parliament. The early feminists were accused of having “disgraced both themselves and their sexuality” (Stanton). There were many men who were anti-feminists. However, one man stood out as a strong advocate for equality. John Stuart Mill’s book, ‘The Subjection of Women,’ and his efforts in Parliament were pivotal to the fight for equal rights. They also helped solve the “Woman Question”. As women demanded more rights in terms of political, legal and economic matters and increased opportunities for women, this period saw an increasing focus on the domestic.

Coventry Patmores poem, “The Angel in the House”, (1854), contributed to the creation of the ideal domestic angel. The idea was that the perfect women were submissive and weak to their husbands. They also had a spiritual aspect. We will discuss whether the “woman question” constrains or liberates the characters in “Lady Audley’s Secret”, or “Woman in White”. Also, we’ll examine how these characters react to society’s perceptions and effects.

Shaka Zulu; His Life, Times And Legacy

Shaka Zulu, a powerful and intelligent warrior in the early 1800’s. Shaka joined Chief Diniswayo’s warrior force in his early years. Shaka gained military knowledge and organization while serving in Diniswayo’s army. Shaka’s Zulu leadership skills were not because of Shaka’s personality. They were due to the exceptional training he gave his warriors.

Shaka’s greatest achievement was to have destroyed a 100-mile-wide area of land south of Tugela with an army of 20,000. Shaka was able to rule 250,000 people in 1828 and create an army with 40,000 warriors. He also killed 2,000,000 during his reign. He remained in power through mass executions until his army became overworked and unrest from the forced celibacy caused him to lose control. Shaka was assassinated by his half-brothers on September 23, 1828. Shaka’s half brothers assassinated him on September 23, 1828. This illustration depicts Shaka’s warriors in a typical fight. Mary Evans painted the picture in 1847. This lithograph features thousands of Zulu soldiers, showing how Shaka created an army with only 500 men.

Shaka was made godlike by the assegai spear and shield. The wooden assegai spear is long and stabbing. The sharpened tips on both sides of Shaka’s weapon can easily penetrate any body. Shaka’s weapon has two sharp sides so he can kill enemies who attack him behind him as well as fight them in front. He used his shield as a second weapon. The front of his shield had sharp edges so that he could both block and stabbing people. Shaka trained 500 men to be a formidable army. He visited his other two military kraals almost every day and woe to those who defaulted. He could easily reach the borders of his kingdom, which was only ten miles wide by ten feet long, from his central location within an hour.

Shaka was meticulous and worked with a remarkable work ethic. Ritter states in E.A Riter’s best-selling novel Shaka Zulu – The Rise of the Zulu Empire – that Shaka was “always insistent on inspecting everything by himself”. Shaka insisted that, before every battle, he reconnoitered the battlefield and the positions of the enemies. Shaka Zulu’s bloodthirsty policy changed the Zulu Kingdom. He became illegitimate because of his greif. Shaka was devastated by the death of Nandi. He banned milk and farming. This brutal reaction claimed the lives of 7,000 people.

For Shaka to grasp the magnitude of his task, he needed to compare it with that of his predecessors. Shaka had 500 men in his ‘army.’ In 1879, sixty-three-years later, it took the British Army, consisting of 20,000 Imperial soldiers and cavalry with breechloading weapons, cannons or rocket batteries to conquer Zululand. The British Army also needed over 1000 ox drawn wagons, each capable of carrying 3 tons. Zulus attacked without fail, so the British Army didn’t even have to bother looking for them.

Samurai Versus Knight: Comparison Of Battle Tactics

Medieval Europe and medieval Japan shared many similarities, but also some conflicts. One of them was the soldier or warriors that fought for land. In Japan and medieval Europe, the samurai fought on horses while in Europe they used horsemen. Both fought to defend their homeland against foreign invaders. The warriors are very similar. In Europe and Japan, two distinct warriors classes emerged during the Medieval Era. Samurai and Knights were these two warriors. History records them as an example of sacrifice and courage. No one had ever seen before such a brave and dedicated’military group’. Despite the fact they came from different cultures, there were many similarities between them. Samurai and Knights both had similar duties. They were hired as guardians to protect land and people. Ironically, Samurai and Knights both came from noble families because expensive horses, armor and weapons required extensive training. They were the highest social class and enjoyed many privileges. They were also expected to set an example for those of lower social status and follow the rules of their faith. The most important principles of a samurai or knight are loyalty, discipline and courage. They had one purpose: to serve the lord, and to succeed.

The medieval knights’ battle tactics would allow them to crush the Japanese samurai but, in a one-on-1 battle, they would triumph with their training and respect.

A warrior’s training and code of behavior were among the most important values that shaped society. Bushido is a code that was derived from Zen Confucianism. Bushido and society often combine powerful social and political messages. Japan maintained the teaching that a smart, strong student is obligated to become a farmer. The term chivalry refers to the code of ethics and style that medieval European knights followed. Chivalry was a combination of values such as honour, courtesy courage and virtue. It was founded on a mix between military, religious, and cultural ethics. Chivalry began as a code of conduct for knights but evolved into a cultural context during the Renaissance. Bushido principles emphasize honor, loyalty, martial art skill and courage. Chivalry was important in the shaping of medieval society and Bushido is still today. Chivalry is a code of conduct that encourages men to act in accordance with their morals, while Bushido focuses on the service of superiors or daimyo. Although they were not in contact, their similarities are many. Zen Confucianism, due to the intense training a Samurai had to undergo and the laws they were required to follow, was the most disciplined and structured practice.

Weapons can be used to win or to kill. Weapons include anything that can harm or kill other living beings. Different cultures used different weapons in medieval times. Swords, spears and bows and arrows are the most popular weapons. The samurai chose the katana to be their main weapon. They also used a 12-inch wakizashi for close combat and seppuku. Medieval European Knights had their initials inscribed on the longsword handle as a sign of culture. Knights didn’t just have 2 or 3 weapons, but they had different classes of swordsman. The samurai were covered from head-to-toe in armour with great mobility. To top it off, they had an intimidating face. The light armour leaves them very vulnerable during battle. Samurai were also vulnerable to enemy attacks because of their light armour. They were vulnerable to firearms, arrows, and light armour. Since the Japanese only discovered firearms in the 13th Century, Japan was left vulnerable by modern countries. Knights from medieval Europe faced similar difficulties with their weaponry and armour. Knights were slowed down by the heavy armour and difficulty in moving. The armour became rusted over time and was cleaned by the armor squire. The amount of materials and the cost of their armor were important factors. In the past, knights wore shiny iron armour because it was expensive. In this case, the samurai wins due to their light and compact weapons. They can kill more quickly.

Battle tactics are what separates the winners from losers in a war. Hastings’ battle was an excellent example. The Normans placed their archers in front of the shield walls to skirmish them, removing numbers one by ones. The shield walls did not collapse when they sent their infantry into the battle. The Normans started to retreat when they heard that their king had died. They were still fighting. The shield wall collapsed and pursued the Normans. Normans appeared out of nowhere and wiped out the group chasing them. The battle continued and the Saxons lost because their battle plan failed. European knights excelled at battle planning and tactics. The cavalry was one the most powerful troops in early medieval times. However, as other forces and infantry took over the role of the army towards the late medieval period, the importance of the cavalry began to diminish. Knights could also use a cheat to spread out different classes for maximum damage and impact. Knights would ride on horses and use crushing attacks to destroy defences and fight in the open. Knights used trebuchets, catapults as well as trebuchets for long distance damage. Samurai tactics were very simple. It was the warrior’s instinct to kill and avoid being killed. The downside was that some samurai used horses which were often heavy and slow, but their riders understood Kyuba no Michi or the way of the horse and bow. The main element of their strategy was intimidation. This worked well most of time. It was considered a disadvantage to be a medieval Knight because you would die as if by default due to poor leadership and training. The knights of old were not like the ones we know today. They were wealthy and fruitful. In most cases, those who faced the knight were defeated. The crusades was a prime instance where the knights overpowered the Muslims. With their intricate battle plans, I believe that knights could easily defeat an army of samurai.

The medieval Knights’ battle tactics would make them trample on the Japanese Samurai, but when they faced off against each other the samurai won because of the codes of respect and their training. The samurai has been known to be one of the best-trained warriors in history. In the Chivalry, a knight would swear to fight and serve a lord only if they paid him. In terms of armour and weapons, the samurai was a step ahead. This is important in combat. The samurai’s katana had a light, sharp blade and was agile. This was in line with their Karuta armour which was built for mobility and safety. Knights had large, dull swords that were heavy and slow. They needed to use force in order to cut someone. The samurai’s armour weighed 12 kilograms more than theirs, so they couldn’t run. It was the battle tactics that were most important for knights to win battles. In summary, in a battle between samurai and knights the European would win but the Japanese would lose in a battle of 1v1. However in battles between armies the European would win because they would pick off the samurai by using their battle techniques.

An Overview Of The History Of The Indus Valley Civilization

Indus valley Civilisation is the oldest of the four ancient civilisations. Harappan Civilization is another name for it. Indus was named after the Indus River because of the many sites in that area. It includes the modern-day nations of northwest India, Pakistan, as well as northeast Afghanistan. Indus Valley civilization was discovered by British workers in the late 1800s while they were building railways around Indus. Cunningham was a British General who discovered seals, scripts, and other artifacts at the site. He became convinced that these were remnants of an ancient civilisation.

Indus Valley civilisation history is popular because it’s the oldest eastern culture after Egyptians and Mesopotamians, who occupied the biggest area. Mohenjo-Daro was the capital of Indus Civilization, followed by Harappa. Mohenjo-Daro was not only the largest city of the Indus valley Civilization, but also one of the most ancient urban centers in the world. According to legend, it was constructed in the 26th Century BCE. The city was one of the most advanced urban areas in the time, featuring cutting-edge urban planning and design. The bricks were baked in the sun to make the houses. Some of the smaller houses only had a few small rooms, while others were larger structures. Harappa on the other had a population of 23500 living in red brick and sand roofed houses. Harappa is a town that was first settled four thousand year ago. It had a lot of creative ideas and was essential. The city was a continuation of the same religious and administrative centers that were utilized in Mohenjo-Daro. Archaeologists thought that bricks would protect them from floods or drowning. Indus Valley had many towns that featured urban layouts such as drainage systems and well-assembled homes. Indus valley had an impressive drainage system and sanitation.

There are no longer inscriptions. This makes it difficult to decipher the writing. Harappan written works are still difficult to examine, despite their great desire to do so. The sheer number of signs shows that it was probably a logosyllabic writing. As a result, the complexities and difficulties of deciphering the language and communicating with the people are far greater than in a syllabic/alphabetic script.

Indus Valley civilisation was advanced, and this included in trading. Indus valley individuals were highly dependent upon exchange. The Indus Valley people traded with many civilizations including China and Mesopotamia. Also, they exchanged with Afghanistan and parts of Asia. The exchanged goods included earthenware, gold, silver and metals. Transporting goods overseas was mainly done by rivers. Bull carts were also used for trading goods over short distances. The Indus Civilization was able to extend its lifestyle by exchanging goods with other cultures. The exchange routes were used by merchants and professionals to transport crude materials from the countryside into towns and cities, where they were then transformed into ceramics, metal products, and adornments. Archaeologists uncovered weights, gauges and other evidence that trade centers were situated in the urban settlements. Cotton was an essential item of trade in the Indus River Valley. Their wealth depended upon a subsistence-based economy of grain and wheat. Indus people were primarily engaged in agriculture. Urban areas benefited from agriculture. City craftsmen made things like pots and cotton fabrics. Brokers exchanged goods between cities by bringing the necessary materials to workers and removing finished items.

Archaeologists claim that the Indus Valley civilisation declined in the second millennium. Indus Valley’s human progress started to decline in the early 1900 BC. Researchers once believed that the Aryans, warlike individuals of Euro-Asia’s steppes, had wiped them out. Aryans were present in the Indus valley, but they are no longer considered to be responsible for the human decline. Harappa or Mohenjo-Daro are two examples of urban areas that were not crushed all at once. The cities were taken over gradually, and this took a considerable amount of time. No one knows what caused this. There are many possibilities. Perhaps the river changed course. Or perhaps the temperature in the world has risen, causing the urban communities to be devoured. In other cases, flooding or diseases could have ravaged the cities.

During the study, it was very difficult to get any information about the scripts. The Indus valley Civilization scripts have not been deciphered by researchers until today. This is because the scripts lack letters and numbers, making it difficult to decipher. Also, both the writing and the language have disappeared with people. A dominant language may be a result of a group speaking it. This can wipe out less-spoken languages. Many theories have been proposed about the ending of Indus valley Civilization. Since none of these theories is proven, this topic is controversial. So, it became difficult to locate accurate information.

Compare And Contrast: Japanese And European Feudalism

Feudalism first appeared in Europe during the 800s CE. However, it was not until the 1100s that feudalism made its appearance in Japan. European feudalism ended with the formation of stronger states in 16th century. Japanese feudalism, however, lasted until 1868. The feudal societies of Japan and Europe were based on hierarchies. The warriors and the farmers were below. Social mobility was minimal; peasants’ children became peasants. Lords’ children became lords.

The king ruled the entire country and owned all its land. The king controlled everything and decided on how much land he would give the barons. Barons must swear an oath in order to stay loyal to the king. As all judicial powers were in the hands the monarch/king, the king could still withdraw the land from the barons and give it another member of their class. In Japan, their leader is called an Emperor. The emperor is the highest authority amongst all classes. The emperor was the highest ranking of the nobles. The shogun was the most powerful person in Japan during its feudal era, while the emperor held a small amount of power. The shogun’s sword, or nihonto (in Japanese), played a major role in his outfit.

The barons/nobles held the most power after the king. The barons/nobles in Europe and Japan were similar. The blood relationship of these people gave them powers and priviledges. Nobles were responsible for overseeing the provinces as well as arranging skilled knights to fight for the King during wars. The nobles were responsible for designing the currency, creating the legal hierarchy and establishing tax regulations for the classes below them. The barons leased the land of the kings. In the feudal hierarchy, the barons ranked second. The lords of manor were known as barons.

They created their own legal systems and tax regulations. The Barons were required to pay taxes and rents in return for the land they had leased from the King. They also had to provide knights who could fight any war. Both feudal Japan & Europe made warriors more important than nobles. These warriors were known as knights or samurai, depending on where they lived. Knights had to adhere to chivalry and samurai to bushido. In feudal Japan there was a class of daimyo warriors called samurai. But samurai also worked under this daimyo. Samurais were required to hold certain privileges, including a family name, a crest and the ability to carry two swords. Even today, people with samurai names are treated with respect. Bushido is the Japanese term for the strict code of honor or “way of the fighter” that samurai followed, even though they were not very well educated. Seppuku is expected of samurai who break the bushido code or bring disgrace to themselves. Women could also serve as a Samurai, but they had to be under the leadership of a man.

They were also known by the name vassal in feudal Europe. In feudal Europe, they were also called vassals. The barons’ families and themselves were also protected by these people. As a reward for their service, they would distribute the land that nobles had given them to lower-level members of society. The feuds and lands they distributed were subject to the guidelines of rent and taxation. European knights received land in return for their military service. They had control over the serfs working that land. Japanese samurai on the other had no land. Instead, they used some of the money that was earned by taxing peasants as a way to pay the samurai.

This class included peasants in Japan who were farmers, artisans, or merchants. In feudal japan the farmers were very important, especially to the shoguns. The Japanese farmers were the main source of food for them. They were able to avoid importing a lot of foreign food. In feudal Japanese society, merchants were the lowest-ranking class. People looked down on merchants because they were dishonestly selling things made by others, and taking their credit. They were rich and were considered one of the most benefited classes in feudal Japan, even though they weren’t popular and were the lowest class. In the Middle Ages, the European peasants had the same social status as the Japanese peasants.

Slaves were sold and bought, as well as serfs who did not have any rights. They were required to feed the upper classes of the society, so they mainly engaged in agriculture. They did not own land, so they had to pay taxes both in cash and kind to those who provided them with land.

Conclusion Even though feudalism ended in Japan, it still persists in certain European countries. Japan and Europe both had feudal societies that shared many similarities, as well as some differences. European feudalism had been around for a little longer than Japanese, being established between the 9th-12th centuries.

Differences Between Elizabethan Theatre And Modern Theatre

As it wasn’t considered a respectable occupation, only males were allowed in Elizabethan theaters. Teenage girls would dress as men who had yet to reach puberty. A profession that was neither highly respected nor well paid, acting was often considered a profession of troublemakers and promoters of ‘hard living.’ In the past, actors would travel in a wagon looking for an audience to pay to see them perform.

Men and women may perform in theatres today. The profession of acting is highly respected and appreciated. People pay to attend performances at theatres that are permanently located.

You will probably think about the Globe Theatre when you hear the words ‘Elizabethan Theatres’ or ’16th-century theatres’. It was the theater built by William Shakespeare for his play. Peter Street was most likely the architect. In the evenings, there were no lights to illuminate the theatre. They could have set fire to the stage if they used candles. The theatre was considered to be a low-class activity. Theatres were often in competition with other entertainments, like bear baiting. (This involved betting and watching bears kill dogs.) Every day, people expected to watch a different play in the theatre. The Swan, The Rose and other theatres were included.

In the modern era, a play will be ‘run’ in a theatre for many weeks, even months and years. That is ten times longer than it was during Elizabethan time. The theatres have changed dramatically. They are now shaped like boxes. The seats surround the stage on three sides. Although some theatres still have afternoon shows, most people now go to see them at night. On this photo, only men are on the stage. On this image, both mens and womens can be seen on the stage. Elizabethan theatre. This is modern-day theatre.

The top row of seats was farthest back from the stage. Although people sat in these seats, they were still in front. Rich people will want the best seats, the ones that are most exclusive and segregated, far away from the poor, rowdy people. The theatre was an exciting event. During a play, the poor would talk, yell or even throw objects (mostly rotten food) at each other. The poor would tell the rest of theatre if they didn’t enjoy the play or actors. Rich people would comment on the play from the stage.

Seats at the rear are less expensive because they have a poorer view of the stage. Plays are now a much more serious experience. The audience must be quiet throughout the entire play. It is repeated that they should be quiet and respectable. People will often go to dinner before or afterwards. Plays are usually reserved for the wealthy. Tickets are more expensive for average people.