Cause Of The Fall Of The Byzantine Empire

Table of Contents

Quick Rise to Power: Fall of the Byzantine Empire

Threats to Byzantine Empire


Rise of Ottomans

Quick Rise to Power: The Fall of the Byzantine Empire Constantine, who was the first to achieve power, established constantinople (the capital) in the 4th century.

Constantine’s successors grew the empire until the Byzantine Emperor spanned most of the Mediterranean, including Egypt, Sicily and Italy. However, the empire’s downfall was due to over expansion. The Eastern Empire’s geographical position was not favorable, and they were surrounded by enemies. There were many Saracens in the south, including the Umayyad Caliphate and Seljuks. This made it difficult for the Pope to be recognized as the leading religious authority of Christendom. The Byzantine Empire was under threat. The Byzantine Emperor had to confront invasions from various fronts in the Late antiquity. Fear grew as the 5th century saw the rise of Islam in Europe. In 636 CE, the empire was defeated again in Battles like the Battle at Yarmouk. This battle took place between the Byzantine Imperial and the Rashidun Caliphate. As victories kept coming in the Arabs began to campaign to take land from the byzantine empire. In this campaign they were able conquer Asia Minor (Sierra Minor), Crete, Crete, as well as Cyprus. The Byzantine Empire suffered a significant blow with the fall of Egypt. This region was important for grain and other manufactured goods.

The Seljuk Empire, a rival in the 11th-century Seljuk Empire, grew up in the Byzantine Empire. In August 1071, they clashed at Battle for Manzikert. This resulted the decisive defeat to the Byzantine Imperial. Byzantine lost Armenia and Anatolia, resulting in a humiliating defeat. Italy was home to many territories that the Byzantine Empire had been seized by small countries such as the Normans.

THE CRUSADESTo combat all these threats and with the Seljuk Turks located central Asia bearing down upon Constantinople, Emperor Alexius II called for assistance from west-allied allies, which resulted in Pope Urban II declaring “holy warfare” that launched the First Crusade.

Alexius attempted to make the leaders of Byzantium’s armies swear loyalty to him to ensure that any land he had gained from the Turks would be returned to his empire. The crusades were intended to help the byzantine empire weaken, reclaim lost territory. However, The Fourth Crusade proved to be the most dangerous threat to the empire. The =soldiers in this crusade mutinied in Constantinople and began looting, vandalism, destruction and general looting.

The historic great sack of Constantinople was a pivotal moment in history. After centuries of conflict between Orthodox and Catholic religions, Christendom’s influence in the east was severely reduced. This allowed for the rise and expansion of Islam into Europe. Plagues The Plague Of Justinian decimated a large portion of the empire’s population between 541 and 542 CE. The plague caused the deaths of approximately 5,000 people every day during its peak in Constantinople Civil Wars.

All of this culminated in two civil conflicts that did not only harm the military, but also the social aspect of the Byzantine imperium. Andronikos III, his grandfather’s co-emperor, was elected to be the winner of the second war. Many saw it as an opportunity to gain notable gains in Anatolia.

A civil war erupted after Andronikos III’s death in 1341. This continued until 1347. Andronikos II died leaving behind his six-year old son, Anne of Savoy. John Cantacuzenus (the de facto leader) was an associate of Andronikos III, an extremely wealthy landowner. He was elected emperor of Thrace, but things didn’t go his way. The war was decided by class. Cantacuzenus was supported by the wealthy, while Cantacuzenus was supported and supported by the poor. The Serbs used the civil war as an opportunity to claim themselves the emperor and king of the Serbs. The Byzantine Macedonia conquered by the Serbian King Stefan Uros IV Dusan, 1345. Large swathes were also captured by Epirus and Thessaly.

Cantacuzenus employed Turkish mercenaries to help him secure his authority in civil war. In 1352, they captured Gallipoli from The Byzantines. Although the Byzantine Empire lost many of its territories to the rebel mercenaries in 1354, western crusaders defeated them. However, Turkish armies would eventually regain control of most of these areas. These two civil wars were a major setback to the Byzantine Empire’s military power and gave its opportunistic adversaries an opportunity to gain significant territory in Byzantine territory.

Rise of OttomansBy then, Byzantine was very weak and almost invulnerable to the Ottoman Turks. The Turks made Constantinople their top priority and started the Second Siege of Constantinople. It was stopped by attacks from the mongols Ottoman Sultan Murad II. However, it was quickly lifted following fierce resistance from the city’s defenders. Sultan Mehmet II, the Byzantine Empire’ was defeated in 1453. At this point, the empire was limited to Constantinople and Morea. Constantine XI and his 8,000 troops defended Constantinople bravely, but Constantinople fell on May 29, 201453.

The Byzantine empire was the center for civilization and sank both the Roman and Greek civilisations. Western Europe suffered from the terrible effects of the Great Depression. While it shared some Rome’s characteristics, it established its own type of civilization but not its own state. The Empire was responsible for protecting Western Europe’s possessions until barbarism fell. Many historians agree that Europe would not have survived the Islamic invasions without Byzantium. Although the Roman Empire’s western half was destroyed in 476, its eastern half survived for over 1,000 years. This gave rise to a rich history of writings, art and knowledge that served as a buffer and military support. The empire’s great end was due to its excessive expansion of territory.

The Main Causes Of The French Revolution

The Bastille was a French prison that held the monarchy’s authority. On July 14, 17 the common people attacked it. Prior to the revolution in France, individual freedom and natural rights were stripped from the French because of incompetent and political ignorance of King XVI. Marie Antoinette was a lackluster leader and intelligence. Financial ruin and bankruptcy resulted from the Third Estate’s incessant taxation. The principal source of injustice was the social privilege of clergymen, nobles, which caused the dearth of opportunities for those in the middle. French Revolution was caused in part by the failure of the French government, excessive taxation of the lower class, as well as the unjust social structure. The French Revolution was caused by the concentration of power in an elite circle. Political absolutism was a hallmark of the Bourbon dynasty, which enjoyed unimaginable power. The monarchy was justified in its right to rule on divine rights. He used his power as a political influence to limit the Estates General from meeting. The Third Estates began questioning the rules and traditions of the absolute monarch after years of abuse and unjust treatment. Before their 175 year anniversary, the Estates General established Cahiers where they shared their grievances. It mentioned especially the Third Estates’ political freedom. Head …”. should take the Third Estate’s votes in the Assembly to ensure it has the power and influence it deserves due to its size. The First and Second Estates were three percent and the third was all Third Estate. Also included were grievances about the abuse of kings and the tyranny that was letter de cachet. Another political event that inspired French revolutionaries was the American Revolution. “The monarchy was not overthrown by the condition of France. The ideas of the philosophers did not cause the outbreak… but the American example led to the Revolution. …”. The Declaration of American Independence changed Third Estates thinking and caused anger to be expressed towards the absolute monarchy. With the support of the bourgeoisie class as their leader, the Third Estate created the National Assembly and the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen. It made law supreme over all others and law became their will. “Men were born free and can remain so; social distinctions can only serve the common good…the rights that are available to all are liberty, property, security, resistance to oppression The centralization and control of government power created discontent among most of France’s population and led to rebellion. France’s economic problems were caused by increasing war debts, resulting in a number of wars. The wealthy estates sought to remedy the situation by imposing financial restrictions upon the Third Estate. When they only owned sixty-five percent, they pushed all government taxes towards the Third Estate. The taille, the tax on land and its produce was not paid equally based on estates. “It is wrong to tax each person for the same amount. The nobility holds very few lands. Commoner land is heavily taxed. Ironically, while the richest people didn’t pay taxes, the burden of tax was shared equally by the poorest. The tax on bread was particularly high, which had a significant impact on the Third Estate’s insecure life. It was more than people could pay. “The shortage of bread is horrible. “The lack of bread is terrible. Many people were upset at the size and severity of their feudal obligations. The Third Estates were unhappy with the tax exemptions that the First, Second and Third Estates received.

The French economy was in financial trouble due to war debt. However, the unwillingness of the upper estates to give up their privileges led to societal chaos. The French society’s rigid social class structure, known as the Old Regime, caused resentment and was finally overthrown by French Revolution. The First and Second Estates were made up of clergymen and nobility. They made up only three percent of French citizens. The Third Estates comprised peasants as well as bourgeoisie and made up ninety seven percent of the remaining population. They were treated badly and unjustly by both the First Estate and Second Estates. They were also not treated differently by the government in the years before the French Revolution. The middle class of the bourgeoisie was resentful at not having any say in government, even though they were educated, well-off, and hardworking. They wanted to see change in France and were responsible for spreading the Enlightenment ideas to all Third Estates. The National Assembly was headed by the bourgeoisie, who voiced their concern about the injustice and urged France to abolish feudalism. “The middle classes… were sensitive to their lower legal status. They-the middle class – were responsible for the Revolution. Their ultimate goal in creating a society were to determine social status based on individual merit and not birth names. The Third Estates, which were under the Old Regime, had to abide by social restrictions.

French Revolution was the result of the growing resentment towards the French government’s structure. The monarchy was widely opposed due to its inability to govern the country and appeals to Third Estate. France’s economic crisis was caused by the inequal taxation that was continued towards the lower classes. French society was further divided by the clerical privilege. The French Revolution was a turning point in France and other countries, allowing all people to be treated equally and free. The changes are still being felt in today’s society.

The Life And Influence Of The Roman Leader, Julius Caesar

Julius Caesar was a politician. When he was appointed to the 47th B.C., for ten year, he quickly became the most powerful and intelligent dictator in Rome’s history. He was re-elected for life on February 14th, 44th B.C. Gaius Julius Caesar was his full-name and he was born on July 12th, 100 B.C. in Rome, Italy. His parents were Aurelia and Gaius Caesar. He was also well-known as the descendant of Trojan Prince Aeneas. His family was poor. In order to satisfy his hunger for power, he chose to marry into an elite family. Julius Caesar was an exceptional and brilliant-minded man. Even as a young man, Julius Caesar realized that money and corruption were the keys to a Roman republic. His huge bribery is one reason he rose into power. This means that he bought his political power from Rome and many senators disapproved of him. Julius Caesar was known for his ability to manipulate the political system. He was highly educated, intelligent, and a great public speaker. Many called him a “military wizard”. He was a “military intelligence” or a great general in military, which helped him gain popularity, support, as well as power among the Roman Republic’s people. Julius Caesar made it clear that he would rise to power using bribery and military strength. He is therefore known as the greatest man in history. He was the first to win in nearly every war he fought and led. These victories allowed him to expand many of Rome’s geological boundaries. The Capture of Gaul was one of his many battles. The Battle of Alesia is another. His second, and most important achievement was the transformation of a Roman Republic into an Empire. Although the Empire was established after the civil wars had ended (14 years since his assassination), it was his work that allowed the Roman Republic to become the Roman Empire. Julius Caesar’s great-nephew Augustus was elected Rome’s first ruler. Julius Caesar was a man of many accomplishments. His life was full of determination. He also serves as a role-model to many others living today. Julius Caesar had a positive impact on many people, especially future leaders. However, many of his subjects didn’t like him. His unquenchable thirst to power, his well-thought-out decisions, and his frequent use of bribery were the reasons. On March 15, 1944, he was assassinated by about 60 noblemen, some of them senators from Rome. Marcus Junius Brutus (d.42BC) and Gaius Cassius Longinus (19.2 BC) arranged this assassination plot. Julius Caesar’s final words were “‘kai su, teknon?” which is “You too? My child?” His close friend, Brutus, also stabbed his hand. Although his subjects were loyal to him, this does not prove that they had a positive impression on him. This was the reason Julius Caesar, the most powerful man in Rome, died. Julius Caesar seemed to have been more of an administrator than an army General during his lifetime. People today know Julius Caesar as the most powerful dictator of the Roman Republic and its leader. While he was a “military general” and a “military genius”, his strengths and talents lay in the leadership, guiding, or helping Rome to become an extremely powerful republic. His lifetime was a time of order and stability in Rome. Other examples of his outstanding administration include the way he granted citizenship and added different aristocrats to his Senate. Julius Caesar is also well-known for his clever and meticulously planned decisions as an administrator. He was always aware of both the risks and benefits of his decisions. Julius Caesar was therefore a better administrator than an army general.

The Proletariat’s Alienation: A Critique And Explanation Of Marx’s Theory On Estranged Labor

A state of “alienation” is a situation in which an individual is excluded from or is isolated from a group (Merriam Webster, 2015). Marxist theory defines “alienation” as the absence or inability to exist for a particular sector of society. Karl Marx developed this concept, appropriately named the Theory of estranged Labor. It explores the idea of working class people being intrinsically alienated by Capitalistic economic systems. Marx’s 1844 text “Estranged Work” and Bertell Ollman’s critiques of his theory (Alienation “The Theory of Alienation”, 1977) show how labor, product, and production interact. These forces operate within the larger contexts of the class diaspora between property owners/propertyless workers — the proletariat and the bourgeois. These interactions result in the alienation of both the proletariat and individuals. It is possible to see if Karl Marx wrote “Estranged labor” in order to provide a direct commentary on Capitalism’s alienation. Or, if he intended to portray alienation as an ongoing condition throughout economic history.

Karl Marx’s 1844 text Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts discusses “estranged labor” within the contexts of Capitalism’s labor relations and working conditions. Understanding Capitalism is crucial. Capitalism is best described by Merriam-Webster (2015) as “an economic system in which the country’s industry, trade, and finances are managed by private individuals for profit” (Merriam Webster 2015). Marx critiqued Capitalism in relation to the alienation – or estrangement – of the worker. He defined the concept of “estranged Labor” as the following: “The worker becomes ever poorer the more wealth they produce, the larger their production increases in power and scale. “Estranged Labor” Karl Marx.

The laborer (the proletariat) is an object in Capitalistic markets. He is not free to develop his mental and physical energy. When he works, he feels at home. His labor is coerced and forced. Karl Marx, 5, explains that this is “Estranged Labor”. Marx adds to this theory by explaining how the laborer is actually the object and creator of the product. This is because production, which includes the product being manufactured and its entrance into the economy, is not under the control or the laborer. Marx calls this “Estranged Labor”, Karl Marx. The object itself is not the property of the laborer. Neither is the machine that produces it. Neither is the designer or distributor of the product. This system of mindless work means that any labor produced by an individual does not belong to him. He is performing an inhuman act of assembly to serve two purposes: 1) the production of goods for others and 2) the maintenance of the worker’s physical subsistence (“Estranged labor”, Karl Marx, 3). The requirement for a laborer to buy a product created by him from the company that employed him to make it is a clear example of how the laborer can be separated from his production. The notion of “estranged work” is apparent in this economic moment. The laborer is removed from the object and purpose of his labor. He is also separated from his self-understanding within the framework of Capitalistic production. The laborer is not familiar with the object. This is a direct example of the inherent concept that laborers lose value as human beings and members of society as the value of their labor increases (“Estranged labor”, Karl Marx, 2). Thus, the worker becomes more dependent upon labor than labor is dependent upon him; the worker is an item of the production process. The laborer is also forced to see his labor as something he can only obtain with the greatest effort and without interruptions (“Estranged Labor”, Karl Marx 3). This makes him value the exploitative labor far more than his owner. He must seperate himself from the outside, sensuous world, taking on an activity belonging to another. “Estranged Labor”, Karl Marx, 3. Perhaps assimilation would be more appropriate in this instance than appropriation since he is an individual from a marginalized community who must adapt to the needs of others to make it through a system that has failed him.

As a result of this loss of his sense of self — and ultimately a loss of his sense of humanity in the context of species-characteristics (freely active, self-separating actions and activities based in individuality and willful choice) — the laborer:

“Only feels himself fully engaged in his animal functions — procreating, eating, living, etc. — and in his humans functions does he feel anything but an animal. What is animal is made human.

These facets of estrangement — including alienation from the object, alienation from oneself, and alienation from humanity/human species-characteristics (and nature, therein) — provide the framework for classifying estrangement of labor within Capitalism as a fact within the boundaries of the laws of political economic theory.

The question is: Who owns the labor? Marx explained that it must “belonged” to someone else. If the worker’s labor is a source of pain and suffering, then another person must have satisfaction and pleasure. This alien power can only be held by man, and not the gods or nature. It is possible to conclude that “someone else is master of this object” (“Estranged Labor”, Karl Marx 9): This other is, of necessity, the “property owners”; “Capitalist” or “bourgeoisie”. This other — who acts as a malevolent god-character – requires the worker to “perform…service” under his domination, coercion (“Estranged Labor”, Karl Marx 9). This makes the laborer a slave to his wages, capital, and Capitalistic, as well as to himself. This alone is “the true soul of production”, Karl Marx 10

Many communist-oriented sociologists have studied Marx’s criticism and discussion of Capitalism’s economic system and its downfalls over the past century. These analyses frequently produce the same question as Marx, but it is not one Marx asked. “Is Capitalism the position for the estranged laborer in Capitalism one or struggle?”. John Holloway of the Marxist Society and Bertell Ollman were two notable scholars who raised the same question. Their responses to it provided different interpretations about Marx’s theories and thoughts. Holloway’s text “A Note on Alienation” was published in Historical Materialism 1997. It suggests that there two basic approaches to understanding alienation. First, Capitalism is a category of objects that suffer from humans. However, second, alienation is a condition which allows for transcendental thinking. He continued to state that there is an additional interpretation. It is “not a condition… it’s a continuous struggle”. He states that Marx’s work on estranged labor has an overarching narrative that emphasizes the importance to understand alienation in terms if activity. (“A Note about Alienation”, John Holloway; 147). He believes that alienation is actually an activity and the laborer creates it within capitalism. Capital is dependent upon labor. “Alienation does not exist in class struggle. It is the struggle to make capital exist.” (A Note on Alienation, John Holloway), 148. Holloway’s solution to Capitalism’s concept of alienation and its ultimate end goal of reaching a disalienation state is in his claim that “disalienation has here now” in his existence as insubordinate work, not only within, or against capital. This is a problematic approach to alienation. This view of alienation assumes not only that there is a future that will not be affected by alienation, but also that the proletariat has the ability and willingness to seperate from capitalism in order for it to fall. Holloway is writing from a privilege perspective in this respect, since Holloway’s interpretation of “Estranged Labor” completely ignores the real struggle of the proletariat. It is a system that dehumanizes, devalues, but gives them the means to live. As a member or a group of the bourgeoisie, it is not realistic to assume that an individual should be able to give up basic security and existence.

Bertell Ollman interprets Marx’s “Estranged labor” differently. He views alienation instead as a condition that is present in the present but which can be overcome in time. Ollman examines the proletariat’s condition through the lense of a medical analogy.

“Alienation, without some knowledge of what the future millennium will bring, remains a reproach that cannot ever be clarified.” Declaring someone sick is a declaration of fact, not an evaluation that relies on any outside standards.

Similar… Marx also posits an inner relation between unalienation and alienation. “The Theory of Alienation”, Bertell Ollman 3), states that there is no outside standard to judge alienation. The concept of alienation can’t be considered a struggle. It must be seen as a condition. He continues to explain the effects of alienation on all individuals in a capitalistic economy, whether they be bourgeoisie, proletariat or proletariat. Ollman states that the Capitalistic regime’s alienating and oppressive conditions are very severe and can be fatal. Ollman also points out that laborers may not have reached the state of enlightenment that would allow them to truly walk away. Holloway’s theory is not supported by Ollman. Ollman presents the end of a system of alienation and estrangement more closely to Marx’s commentary on “Estranged labor” by arguing for Communism to be the positive transcendence of all estrangement.

Holloway’s interpretation of Marx’s text is much clearer than Marx’s, opening the door to a self-directed and focused conception of the outcome of Capitalism’s transcendence. Together these texts give a clear picture of the current situation regarding the alienation or condition of labor. This analysis shows that the future and viability of Communism as an ideology is at stake. Even though it’s most plausible, the idea that there’s no plan for the transition of a Capitalist government to a Communist state is perhaps dangerous. It is possible for Communism to fall if there is no plan or system of governance within a Communist society. This has been demonstrated in red-state China, and the USSR. A Communist system without a clearly defined path is vulnerable to being overthrown and exploited for fascism. But, a clear interpretation of Theory of Estranged Labor is the first direct step towards eventuality of a disaliented Communist State based on justice. Inherent humanity, equality.

D-day: A Day That Changed The Course Of History

Many people didn’t realize that one day in the history of mankind could alter their fate. The Nazi Party would still most likely be the ruling party in Europe if D-Day had never occurred. They could have been able position to rule the majority of the globe. Hitler would have contributed to the Jewish death toll for many more years. Hitler and his Nazi party were determined to eradicate the Jews as they believed it would benefit Germany. Hitler and his Nazi party would want to eliminate all handicapped people. This was done to create the perfect German race. This race consisted only of people with blonde hair and blue vision, and was exempt from certain races or disabled. He would have killed many Germans if he continued with this plan. The Nazi party could also have found a leader who would continue Hitler’s legacy. The death toll could have reached the hundreds of millions. Many children would die from the lack of German ideals. Hitler also murdered Catholics. Imagine going to church every Sunday as normal. Nazi soldiers entered your peaceful place of worship and shot every person in their path just for being Jewish. What would happen if Hitler took control of the world? It was that day that history changed.

D-Day began on June 6, 1944. 13400 American paratroopers, representing the United States, were dispatched to Normandy. The Allies planes resembled the V-shaped migration of flocks. The pathfinders occupied the top of the flock. They were the first to leap onto the beaches. They were prepared for the beach jumps by their training. All other paratroopers were dropped at the designated drop zones by the pathfinders. The planes were subject to heavy anti-aircraft fire. After they flew over French territory, American 101st Airborne encountered heavy German resistance. Private Dwayne burns described how his plane bounced like a wild animal …”.. His plane bounced from the explosions of other planes beside it. Many pathfinders fell into the wrong zone. Many of them fell into the wrong zone as they were too busy trying avoid heavy gunfire. They were unable to tell the paratroopers or pilots ahead of them where to drop, which caused confusion. Sometimes, paratroopers accidentally dropped in the wrong zone due to darkness. Rommel, an Axis general created marshes that made it difficult for the Allied troops to pass through. The Allied forces weighed more than 100 lbs. Due to the excess weight of their backs, paratroopers would drown when they went through marshes. Around 30 men from the 82nd Airborne Division landed in a German-populated town. Their assigned landing spot was located west of the small community. Many of these plans were not implemented by the Allies. D-Day saw many young paratroopers. Many were volunteers and only 18 or 19 years old. 5 beaches were attacked by the ocean. These beaches included Omaha, Utah, Juno and Gold. D-Day brought together the largest armada ever assembled. The water contained over 51,000 vessels. Some of these vessels could also travel on land, which made them amphibious. They could travel in the water as well as on land. Around 5:00 AM, warships began to rain fire on Normandy’s beaches. Holdbrook Bradley, a veteran journalist, stated that “the sound of battle was something I’m used too.” This [the D-Day opening bombardment] was the most loud I’ve ever heard. I was amazed at the amount of firepower that I heard. The newspaper writer clearly has experience with guns and war. You should listen to him and take a moment to consider how many planes and guns were present on that particular day. The seas were extremely rough that day. Their tiny boats would be picked on like a bully. The morning was also full of large breakfasts for the men. They would throw up on each other because of all the undigested food they had. Before the control ship reached the shore, it ran into a mine. The ship burst into flames and began to sink extremely quickly. Navigating through the water was difficult. The men of the ship swam to boats, begging for their pick-up by other boats. They were too dangerous for the German forces to pick up, so the boats couldn’t take them. Unfortunately, the majority of those men who fell into the water following the explosion died. Numerous Higgins boats unloaded the men from their boats into waist-deep water around 6:30 in morning. They kept coming. The beaches were home to about 35,000 men when the boats finally came to an abrupt halt. The Allied soldiers also had 3,500 vehicles at the beach. Some soldiers had to face heavy fire while others were spared by the Germans. Theodore Roosevelt Jr. was a remarkable 57-year-old officer who landed on D-Day. His health was not good at the time, and he often used a cane to walk. He did not withdraw from the invasion, however. Captain John Ahearn drove a tank into D-Day. He found a German bunker in the distance and opened it. They immediately threw their hands into the air when people ran out of that bunker. They shouted German to warn the mines, and saved a tank. They discovered they were from the Soviet Union. Despite sixty missing men, there were not many casualties at Utah. British and Canadian invaded beaches Sword (Gold), Juno and Juno. Utah and Omaha were taken by the United States. Omaha was the most difficult beach. The soldiers suffered constant firing and were often killed by the Germans. The Allied troops managed to get through the resistance and take over the beach. D-Day was not exactly what you expected. Many of these Allied plans were canceled.

D-Day was an important day in world history. World War II would not have been possible if it had not happened. Hitler may have never actually died in his bunker. D-Day had one effect: the German empire, which was formerly “unstoppable”, was defeated. Many people don’t know what actually happened that fateful day. They don’t realize that history will forever remember this day. D-Day has a special significance.

American Policy Of Containment During The Cold War And Its Consequences

The Cold War era saw peace and prosperity in the United States. But, there was also fear, instability and the security threat of nuclear radiation that loomed over everyday life for all Americans and the rest of the world after the end of the second world conflict. Domesticity was created to manage internal conflicts and “contain” this threat. The “domestic contained” strategy involved the gradual shift in gender roles. In the past, the breadwinner and primary provider of the family was the man. Women were responsible for caring for the children and being the homemaker. These roles were generally accepted by spouses, but many couples were unable to accept their new roles. This caused a lot instability and resistance to women and men needing to “know” their roles. These methods of “containment”, which led to instability and insurgency in internal and exterior conflicts, began to change the corrupt social standards that had been in existence for decades.

Many married in the post-WWII era at an earlier age than their predecessors. But the consequences of this were much more severe. Women and men had to make sacrifices. However, women had the responsibility of making more sacrifices for their husbands’ happiness. Women were expected to stay within the social boundaries to avoid being seen as violating containment and failing to fulfill their “purpose,” which was to be the “homemaker” of the family. Carol Sears is an example of a housewife who gave up her independence. “Carol Sears described her independence as if it were a chronic disease or allergy that flared up now and then to bother her…It did not fit well with domestic containment…Defying the consensus could lead to a loss of economic security, social reputation, or community support. Adaptation was clearly more secure than resistance.” Since the beginning of their lives, women had been enslaved by a set of norms that forced them into a life of misery. In order to contain women’s dreams of higher education and greater autonomy, society dictated that women should stay at home. “Because there were very few opportunities for women to work in the paid labor market, many women who wanted to marry believed they would be disappointed if they continued their education.” (May,79). Societal norms persuaded women to believe that the home was their purpose. The Cold War era was the best time to illustrate men’s roles in society. Sloan Wilson’s bestseller, The Man in the Grey Flannel Suit, is a great example. This book emphasized that men were more successful in the family than at work. The family was the only thing that made work meaningful. Society would criticize men for not being the primary provider of their families’ needs. This was a huge burden on men. They had to work hard and be the authority figure at home. In order to be able to provide for their families’ needs, men also had to work extra hours and sacrifice their personal time, leading to bitterness and internal discontentment. “I wish that he had more spare time for his children and himself…he was also concerned about his family’s financial needs. Despite having setbacks in their marriages, both parents believed that the benefits and family life were worth the sacrifices and tensions. Postwar parents were able to instill in their children the notions of independence and comfortability that allowed them to be happy and satisfied with their lives. “I hope that my daughter will one day understand how to be a happy housewife and not become a miserable mother.”

“Domestic confinement” was an attempt to control society’s behavior in the home. But, there were also external conflicts in the post WWII era due to racial segregation, and the desire of African Americans for change in their corrupt, miserable lives. Whites held African Americans back by refusing them federal rights. They also denied them the opportunity to share public spaces with whites. These suppressions of freedom, the corruption of “separate and equal”, stirred much discontentment, tension, and whites still segregated, creating a foundation hypocrisy that favors white families and undermining civil rights. “Ironically,” the people who most lament the possibility of Federal action are those who made it inevitable. This proposed legislation was here because too few Americans have refused American Negros all the privileges. The change to containment that African Americans longed for was achieved through civil rights. In addition to receiving employment equity, women also received an end to sex segregation. America would not have a new face that was corrupt and full of hypocrisy. It would be one that is free and prosperous for all Americans. “Lets admit our hypocrisy now. We must not deceive anyone again. A new nation will be born, built in liberty and dedicated toward the truth that all people are created equal.

Social conformity was the foundation of many tensions. There were numerous attempts to manage threats and change society’s daily life. These values didn’t instantly change America’s face, but they were a step towards a brighter future. Americans were no longer required to conform to the society’s expectations of them. They could live their lives and pursue their personal goals. For anyone to feel at ease, there was still the Cold War threat.

Works citées

Brown, Victoria. Shannon. “Speaking Of Equality.” Going To the Source: The Bedford Reader In American History, 4th Ed., Vol. 2, Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2004. Accessible 20 April 2019.

May, Elaine Tyler. Homeward Bound: American Families during the Cold War Era. The book was originally published by Basic Books in 2008. Accessible 20 April 2019,

The Role Of Women In The Second Great Awakening

The Second Great Awakening, the antebellum marketplace revolution, and the Second Great Awakening were pivotal in changing the roles of women in society, work, and family in the years 1815-1861. This was due to women being more prominent in churches and being recognized for their roles in families. The new church saw women as the most prominent attendees and would shape society in ways such as the abolishment of slavery. The antebellum-market revolution and Second Great Awakening both had great effects on women’s roles. The Second Great Awakening is a religious revival which took place in the United States’ early 19th-century. It made religion the focal point of many people. During this period churches saw the highest growth. It was during this period that women made up the majority of new church members. Charles Grandison Finney, who was a preacher, encouraged women’s prayer aloud. She was also one the first preachers to include women in their religion. Finney had commented upon a conversion in 1831 that was the result of “conversation, prayer,” and this led to the women becoming members of the church. This experience allowed her to return home to the Christian faith which she once believed in. Additionally, women were given the responsibility to teach children the proper virtues and morals. The fact that they did not have to do the household chores meant that they could spend more time with their children. The image Sarony, Major, or “The Happy Mother”, is a picture of a woman and her two children. This was a time when family size declined and women were more likely to marry later. Because they were the centre of the household, women also spoil their children. Godey’s Lady Book of 1845 was a women’s magazine that illustrated how women were “first teachers of all human beings” according to God. They are not allowed to receive the education they need to be able to care for their children. Due to the transition to a more market-based economy, women also found new jobs in factories. The working conditions were difficult for women, who had to work six hours a day and earned low wages. Harriet Farley, who wrote in the Lowell Offering about what it was like to work in the Lowell Textile Mill, described the experience. It attracted “worthy and virtuous, intelligently, and well-educated young girls,” which was their first time with independence. They worked hard to “get more money” and did so as quickly as possible. Women were given new roles within society, but African Americans were still in slavery. Many believed in the abolition of slavery. The photograph “Selling of a Mother from her Child” shows a mother being separated with her child. They would “sell the mother while she kept her children” and this was done “very frequently, and often, too”. It was used to illustrate the idea of anti-slavery as many considered this inhumane behavior. Harriet Beecher Stowe (an abolitionist) captured the degrading effects of slavery in Uncle Tom’s Cabin. This led to many people joining abolitionist movements. The Liberator was an anti-slavery newspaper that published the article “What Women Need to Do with Slavery:A Conversation”. This dialogue captures the conversations between two women. One joined the antislavery cause while the other criticized it. Harriet the woman who “joined Anti-Slavery Society” was doing it “accordingly her own senses”, as she believed women had “strengths and the enlightening ability of truth”. This attitude was the catalyst for many reforms that followed. A wide range of reformers attempted to improve society’s quality. Dorothea Dix in 1843 made a protest about the conditions facing the mentally ill. She said that insane persons are “confined…in cages…in cellars…stalls…pens” and are “chained naked, beaten with sticks, and lashed to obedience.” Dix was not in favor of prisoners being kept in the exact same cells. Dix protested the change that resulted in reformatories and correctional facilities. Women around the globe were granted roles in their families, workplaces, and societies as a result the Second Great Awakening and the Antebellum Market Revolution. This led to women being respected and given prominence in every aspect of daily life. They became leaders in ending slavery and improving the lives of the disadvantaged. Women were recognized for their contributions to their families and churches from 1815-181860.

The Role Of The Strengths Of William Of Normandy In Winning The Battle Of Hastings

This essay will look at my sources and conclude if William of Normandy was influenced by luck, tactics or Harold’s mistakes.

Two battles took place prior to the Battle of Hastings. Harald was declared victorious in the first battle, 1066. He surrendered after only 30 minutes. The battle at Stamford Bridge on the 25th of September 1066 was the second significant battle. Harald orders York citizens to surrender their food, livestock and valuables on the 25th September 1066 after a triumphant victory over FulfordGate. Harald brought a third of Harald’s fighting soldiers to Stamford Bridge. Harold Godwin arrived at Stamford Bridge several days earlier than anticipated. The Vikings were given a chance to defeat Harald, but Fyrd and the Housecarls refused. Harald had received a fatal injury to his throat. Tostig was then killed. Harold Godwinson’s defeat-26th September. After King Edward died (5 January 1066), preparations for their arrival began in Spring 1066. Harald Hadrada, his claim to the English throne, was based on King Harthacanute’s promise of the throne for his predecessor King Magnus. King Edward the Confessor had given Harold Godwinson the name Subregulus. This was also supported by the Witan. William of Normandy is related to several old English Kings. All three of these men are well-known for having experienced warfare, as well as their battle-winning tactics. The period 1066 is also notable for many important battles.

Harold and two hundred Housecarls embarked on their journey towards London on the 26th of September. William, the very next day, set sail to Pevensey-not Dover as Harold had hoped. After many hours of deliberation, Harold Godwin’s Fyrd andHousecarls launched an attack. Harold set up the Fyrd and Archers as well as Housecarls upon Senlac hill. Williams men were below.

The Battle of Hastings was already underway. William and Harold displayed their strengths and weaknesses during battle.

William won Battle ofHastings thanks to his one strength. William was a skilled leader who could quickly adapt to new strategies. This is evident when he saw that the fyrd was lacking in discipline and launched two-track retreats, taking advantage of the weak organization. He created cracks in the wall by doing this. Williamsinfantry, the cavalry, as well as archers, were able tactically to retreat and quickly took control of battle. Williams’s skill and ability to think quickly is a key factor in his victory.

Williams’s strengths are another reason he won the battle. William, as demonstrated, was confident but didn’t become blinded. Consider what would have happened if William didn’t win. He was ready, and not just because he was on the hill. However, these were his backup plans. If all else fails, he could have safely retreated to the sea with his Cavalry and Infantry. This is proof of his ability not being overconfident and still winning the battle.

Williams’s strength was another, which enabled him to win battle. William was a veteran soldier. It has been proven numerous times that he was a skilled soldier. His philosophy was to keep his troops safe and not be afraid. This can be seen in his long-term cause. While Harold would have expected Harold to be there at Dover he decided to land at Pevensey. What if this didn’t happen? Harold might have won Battle of Hastings. Harold won the Battle of Hastings by landing in Pevensey. Harold wasn’t sure where he was. William’s Infantry and Cavalry andArchers fought on farms, burning down houses and stealing livestock. He did this without anyone thinking about stopping him. Williams’ strength is evident in his ability to make the most of his surroundings.

Many of his strengths helped William win the Battle ofHastings. William did not make the same mistakes as many great leaders. He made sure that his plan was clear and unambiguous. An example of this: William expertly placed a watchman who told him of Harold’s midnight arrival- not making the same mistake as Hadrada.Consequently, a short-term cause of Williams ability to devise a perfect plan.

Harold’s weaknesses were one of the reasons William won Battle of Hastings. William was a skilled leader who exploited the weaknesses of his opponents to his advantage. Harold saw that Harold’s Fyrd had lost discipline. Harold had not-strategically set up his Housecarls to stop him from giving in to Williams’s plan. William had won the battle because of his inexperience. An example of Harold’s weaknesses in battle.

Harold’s insatiable need to hurry was another reason Harold lost the battle. Harold didn’t wait for Fyrd and Archers to regroup. Harold might have been able, if he did this, to stop his Fyrd foolishly running into Williams’s scheme. He may even have won the great war of 1066. Harold’s inexperience was evident.

Bad luck is a long-term factor in Harold’s defeat at the Battle of Hastings. William had to defeat William and Hadrada, but fortunately, Harold was able to use his exhausted Archers and Housecarls as well as many Ford. It was therefore more difficult for Harold than the other battles. Harold could have won had it been the other direction.

Luck was the main reason William won Battle of Hastings. One example is that if Williams had not left in the right weather, he might have reached Pevensey. If Harold had ordered his Navy to sink Williams vessels, Harold would have a very good chance of becoming king. Some might argue that William’s victory was purely luck.

I’ve concluded that William won the battle because of his adapted tactics. All of the above reasons have been considered. I believe that William won Battle ofHastings by his own strength. He displayed core leadership skills throughout the battle, and despite being disadvantaged at Senlac Hill, maintained his confidence to win the 3rd Battle of 1066.

Destiny Of A Dream Deferred: “Harlem” By Langston Hughes

Langston Hughes’s poem “Harlem”, also known as A Dream Deferred, explores what happens when a dream is not fulfilled. The poem’s title, Harlem, indicates that the dream is being kept from the people. Hughes named the poem Harlem in honor of Harlem Renaissance New York. This was a significant creative boom in literature, melody and artwork that occurred between the 1910s to the 1920s. Many African African families considered Harlem a refuge from discrimination in other areas of the country. The dream is one of civil rights and social equality. The poem’s persona is an individual who had many important dreams once and hoped to realize them all at some point in his life. Harlem refers to an African American man who feels stressed by the delay of his dream and senses tension within a society which stops some of its citizens from realizing their dreams. The dreams did not come true, so we are asked what to do with them. “What happens when a dream is delayed?” (Langston Hughes). To express his feelings, the writer uses abbreviated diction. To illustrate, the writer uses abbreviated diction to express his feelings. Many African Americans were disillusioned at the lack of opportunities that existed as the state tried to transform itself from rural to urban. The reality of the United States democracy oath was not as it should be. They were often subject to racial discrimination and violence. The fact that white-dominated communities had limited access to places we can understand was an issue. This is because of a larger urban population with better education. Many African Americans became increasingly disillusioned by the promises of wartime justice, and vowed to pursue the same goals of equivalence as ever. Several organized economic and political movements helped Harlem Renaissance in the post-war period. These movements create a new sense of empowerment among African Americans. This was a time when African Americans could invent their own identities within the creative output. However, there were two dominant ideologies. James Weldon Johnson, the NAACP’s James Bols and other African Americans saw the arts as a place where they could be culturally and artistically privileged to lead the fight for equality. They wanted artists to use their cultural experience and heritage to show America’s beauty and contribute to American culture. They believed they would inspire pride in African American society and show whites that blacks are equals through their artistic success. The Great Depression brought down the Harlem Renaissance, mainly because of the loss of white patronage. The National Urban League and the NAACP were both influential journals at that time. The crisis caused them to reduce their financial support for African American artists. Some artists left Harlem in search of other artistic opportunities. This poem, which is probably the most common Langston Hughes poem in American schools, is Hughes’s most well-known work. Hughes wrote ‘Harlem in 1965. It addresses an ordinary theme-the limitations to the American Dream. America was still racially divided in the 1950s. African Americans are still subject to the slavery legacy, making them second-class citizens. The end result of slavery created a new generation African Americans, who wanted to have cultural self-determination, economic justice, and civic participation. The movement was already gaining momentum, but Hughes wrote ‘Harlem’ just three years before Brown, a 1954 supreme court case that declared that public school systems for black and non-white students in states were not constitutional. Hughes was very aware of the struggles he faced as an American black man. He wrote ‘Harlem’ three years before the landmark 1954 Supreme Court decision in Brown vs Board of Education that declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students unconstitutional. The speaker of this poem, although we aren’t sure, could be a poet, professor, or black person. The question is strong and the feeling of calm that follows is evident. Hughes was drawn to the image of a delayed-dram. Hughes imagines it drying up, stinking, crusting and exploding. Although not violent, each of these images has a dark undertone. These vivid dreams had the power to change one’s senses, touch, and smell. Langston Hughes states that a disregarded dream evolves, and is in danger of becoming invisible. He/she is not speaking about a particular dream. However, the speaker suggests that African Americans are unable to dream of greatness due to the oppression in their lives. Even if they dream big, their plans can fester and even explode. Arthur P Davis says Hughes is portraying the hopes, aspirations of, and deep-seated discontent at the New York ghetto. (Langston Hughes). Hughes uses vivid imagery to depict what might happen if the dream isn’t granted. The poem uses similes as one type of figurative language. Similes refer to the use of the words like’ or as to compare different things. The poem uses similes to show how a dream delayed is affected by rotting and other burdensome factors. A dream that has been delayed is often compared with a raisin. These items are linked to actions that can be taken to make the dream come true. The poet uses metaphors that compare two things, without the use of the words ‘likes’ or ‘ass’. The poem closes with a single metaphor and the line “Or does that explode?”. This metaphor is about a dream that has been delayed becoming a bomb. The dream may build momentum and explode once it is finished. Alternately, anger can cause the dreamer to act on it. The poem contains many examples of figurative languages that help to strengthen the vivid imagery. Anaphora is the repeated repetition of a phrase or word at the beginning of a series, sentence, phrase, or clause. Anaphora is used here to stress the question and create an urgency. What happens to a dream that has been delayed? Is it drying up? The alliteration creates rhythm and draws attention to the ideas within them. This line uses hyperbole to highlight the dangers of denying the dream for social equality. The Harlem Renaissance is the most important thing about African Americans. It changed the way they were described. The poet talks about how the dream of black America is dying, especially for those who are not white. He wanted information on whether the dream had died or exploded violently. Hughes is a hopeful Harlem resident. Hughes also emphasized the mistreatment and second-class treatment of Harlem’s residents. He also witnessed that many African Americans have lost their hopes and dreams. Harlem Renaissance created an entirely new culture that white Americans wanted. Refer to

Hull, G.T. Hull, G.T. Three Harlem Renaissance women authors of color, sex, and poetry. Indiana University Press.

Myers W.D. Davis O. Dee R., 1997. Harlem:A poem. Scholastic Press is a publishing house.

Jones, MD., 2011. The muse of music is jazz poetry, spoken word (Vol. 137). University of llinoois Press.

Wall, C.A., 1995. The Harlem Renaissance: Women of Harlem. Indiana University Press.

Bloom, H. ed., 2004. The period of African-American cultural, social, and artistic development known as the Harlem Renaissance. Infobase Publishing provides a variety of information resources.





The Role Of The Creative Process In The Aeneid

How can warfare and art be reconciled It seems that art is not appropriate for the battlefield. Men are too preoccupied with survival and their personal glory to appreciate aesthetics. However, the Aeneid’s combination art and Aeneas’s shield symbolises the divine Aegis that Aeneas also enjoys. Rome will also benefit from the combination of art-and-Aeneas’s shield. Aeneas shield transforms the concept of future from the intangible realm of God into the real world. This illustrates how art is the manifestation of God on earth. The Aeneid artwork combines the immortal and the divine to suggest a creation element that is similar to Virgil’s epic creation.

Aeneas gets a shield from Vulcan of divine origin. Virgil emphasizes this connection by placing Vulcan’s Workshop “near Sicily’s coast” (8.569). Vulcan, unlike Gods who are often removed from the mortal realm of life, is located in an earthy environment. The materials used to create his work reflect the merging of mortal and divine. Aeneas’ armour includes not only the raw, primordial ingredients of “molten Brass, Gold, and Iron” (8.599), but also natural forces, supernatural elements, and his sword “hard-edged with fate” (8.841). Art decorating the shield is another example of the concept that art should have a supernatural component. Virgil makes no secret of Vulcan’s superior armor. This poem illustrates the clear division between mortal skills and immortal ones, but at the end, armor is still worn. This means that, despite the god’s superiority they still have to rely on humanity for change in mortal realm. They cannot just find Rome by themselves. The theme of cooperation between god and man is evident throughout the epic. Aeneas alone is incapable of founding Rome. He needs the help of gods. This shield is symbolic of the assistance given to Aeneas in order to establish Rome. Turnus’ “treacherous sword on impact” struck Aeneas armor. It is a sign of Aeneas needing protection to save his life and allow him to go on with his quest. Aeneas can be protected by the future through the shield he created. Aeneas’ shield has the same features of divine cooperation and human cooperation. As the invocations of the muse show, Virgil’s poetic art also incorporates the assistance of God. Both artistic endeavors show the need for fusion in order to create human beings. The creation aspects of shields are vital to Virgil’s Aeneid depiction. Virgil makes a parallel between Vulcan’s design for Rome’s future, as depicted on the shield to Aeneas, with Augustus’s poetic creation for Rome’s history. This Parallel demonstrates the power of Art to provide identity. Virgil in the Aeneid writes that Aeneas found the shield art a wonder and that he “felt joy in them pictures, taking upon his shoulders all his destined acts, fame and honor” (8.989). Aeneas was exposed to Rome’s fate in the underworld before the creation of this shield. He had to leave his family behind when he left. Virgil, however, is able give Aeneas a definite future view and comfort through his actions. In a similar way that Virgil’s Aeneid would infuse a sense stability and divine purpose in his era. The underworld scene by Virgil demonstrates the power of art in influencing reality. Aeneas passes through the “ivory agleam..through whom false dreams were sent,” suggesting that Aeneas was not following his father’s vision. It seems that Virgil was wryly commenting, in this scene on Augustus’s usage of his art to promote Roman propaganda.

The direct involvement by God in the artwork of shield enhances the sense Virgil created of divine influence. The shield’s artwork emphasises that the Roman people were favored “winds-and-gods” (8.922) and their “immortal offering to the gods. The shield’s artwork depicts Virgil as a specter of Hell looming in the distance, reminding Romans that they are “virtuous souls”. The linkage between the Roman gods and the gods illustrates both divine protection, good favor, and art’s role in creating reality. In the epic, Aeneas is given a shield as a gift by God. This shield represents Aeneas’s fulfillment of the Roman idea of an “empire that never ends” and gives him a goal towards which to fight. They were defeated by “gods from every race” when they held up their weapons against the Romans Neptune, Venus, and Minerva …” (8.947) This epic reflects a sense that Rome is inevitable. Virgil’s epic gives the Roman people a similar sense of faith in their government’s stability. The shield illustrates the connection to the divine and makes it real. Aeneas shield’s artwork is a way to bring the Roman Empire into artistic existence. It also allows for literary traditions. Aeneas, on the other hand, depicts an inexorable force. It is the Roman people who have “conquered nations passed in long processsion” (8.975). Virgil describes the Aeneas shield as a symbol of Rome’s ascent to glory. Homer, however, depicts them as grim and generic, tainted with violence in the cities of peace and war. Virgil incorporates a shield scene into the epic to acknowledge Greek tradition. He also consciously seeks a Roman identity by glorifying it.

The shield representing Aeneas is prominently shown in Virgil’s epic Aeneid. It can be used as both a weapon of war or a peace object. These two disciplines are crucial for Aeneas’ understanding of art and the influence it has on the Roman Empire. The shield illustration by Virgil serves to create a history within the Aeneid. It also helps create the identity that Romans will associate with his epic. This is how Virgil inserts a scene about the shield into his epic. He is conscious of the similarities between his own work as well as the function of shields as forces for creation. This mimicry in structure, form, and message between the shield and the whole work causes the reader’s identification with Aeneas. As Rome’s glory is realized, so are the readers. This is what makes the Virgils creation myth so captivating.