The Influence Of Xuanzong And Yang Gifei To The Famous Chinese Tang Empire

Xuanzong & Yang

It has been said that the relationship that Xuanzong established with Yang Gifei & An Lushan is the thread of history that ties together the Tang Dynasty during its years. Xuanzong ruled over the Tang Dynasty for the first seven years of its golden era. During Xuanzong’s reign, Wu Zetian was elevated to the status of the most popular religion within Tang China. Xuanzong felt, later on, that Buddhism abandoned Taoism. Xuanzong made it a rule that every family should keep a book of Taoism teachings. In 741 CE Xuanzong became infatuated with Yang Guefei. Yang Guefei (Pu 113) moved to the palace of the emperor. Yang succeeded in luring Xuanzong, who was unwilling to hire her family because some members were incapable of performing their jobs. An Lushan led soldiers in overthrowing Xuanzong because Yang’s family was abusing their position. He overthrew Xuanzong. Later, the Tang forces defeated his attempt to establish a rule.

The relationship between Xuanzong, Yang and the Tang Dynasty revealed how prosperous the Tang Dynasty was during the Golden Age and how it began to fall apart when they came together. Historians rely heavily on the marriage of Yang with Xuanzong in order to explain how almost the Tang Dynasty fell following the Golden age. The dynasty flourished before the marriage. Xuanzong’s people were convinced by him that Taoism can bring them all together. The Tang Dynasty’s economy flourished under Xuanzong due to the maritime trade and sound financial reforms. Xuanzong improved the road network in the empire. However, the engagement of Xuanzong with Yang caused the economy to collapse. Xuanzong’s Yang’s relatives mismanaged Tang Dynasty’s economy, to the detriment for many.

Lushan’s revolt against Xuanzong is a contribution to historical studies of rebellions that occurred against empires within the Chinese dynasties. Lushan was convinced that Xuanzong didn’t rule according to God, so he must be thrown out (Pu 137). He wanted to demonstrate the strength of the Chinese Army he had led. Lushan’s Revolution contributed to Tang China’s history by allowing us to learn how empires and monarchs fell. Xuanzong was defeated because he complied with all of Yang’s demands. The tree’s relationship with each other also indicates that God would be the one to decide the leader of Tang China. Lushan, as an example, said that Xuanzong’s actions were against God’s anointment. He was therefore unfit to lead Tang Dynasty.

Xuanzong & Yang’s romance was ‘romantized” by different poets around 800 CE. Bai Juyi reveals, for example, that Yang may have offered to die to save Xuanxzong to show her love. Xuanzong’s life was spent in mourning for Yang (Juyi 80). The relationship between them has contributed to China’s literature.

Lushan was the one who overthrew Xuanzong. Historians claim that Yang misled Xuanzong and led him to Lushan’s attempt to take over Tang Dynasty. The literary works of poets, authors, and others have reflected on the Tang Dynasty events by using the relationship the three had.

Compare And Contrast: Japanese And European Feudalism

Feudalism first appeared in Europe during the 800s CE. However, it was not until the 1100s that feudalism made its appearance in Japan. European feudalism ended with the formation of stronger states in 16th century. Japanese feudalism, however, lasted until 1868. The feudal societies of Japan and Europe were based on hierarchies. The warriors and the farmers were below. Social mobility was minimal; peasants’ children became peasants. Lords’ children became lords.

The king ruled the entire country and owned all its land. The king controlled everything and decided on how much land he would give the barons. Barons must swear an oath in order to stay loyal to the king. As all judicial powers were in the hands the monarch/king, the king could still withdraw the land from the barons and give it another member of their class. In Japan, their leader is called an Emperor. The emperor is the highest authority amongst all classes. The emperor was the highest ranking of the nobles. The shogun was the most powerful person in Japan during its feudal era, while the emperor held a small amount of power. The shogun’s sword, or nihonto (in Japanese), played a major role in his outfit.

The barons/nobles held the most power after the king. The barons/nobles in Europe and Japan were similar. The blood relationship of these people gave them powers and priviledges. Nobles were responsible for overseeing the provinces as well as arranging skilled knights to fight for the King during wars. The nobles were responsible for designing the currency, creating the legal hierarchy and establishing tax regulations for the classes below them. The barons leased the land of the kings. In the feudal hierarchy, the barons ranked second. The lords of manor were known as barons.

They created their own legal systems and tax regulations. The Barons were required to pay taxes and rents in return for the land they had leased from the King. They also had to provide knights who could fight any war. Both feudal Japan & Europe made warriors more important than nobles. These warriors were known as knights or samurai, depending on where they lived. Knights had to adhere to chivalry and samurai to bushido. In feudal Japan there was a class of daimyo warriors called samurai. But samurai also worked under this daimyo. Samurais were required to hold certain privileges, including a family name, a crest and the ability to carry two swords. Even today, people with samurai names are treated with respect. Bushido is the Japanese term for the strict code of honor or “way of the fighter” that samurai followed, even though they were not very well educated. Seppuku is expected of samurai who break the bushido code or bring disgrace to themselves. Women could also serve as a Samurai, but they had to be under the leadership of a man.

They were also known by the name vassal in feudal Europe. In feudal Europe, they were also called vassals. The barons’ families and themselves were also protected by these people. As a reward for their service, they would distribute the land that nobles had given them to lower-level members of society. The feuds and lands they distributed were subject to the guidelines of rent and taxation. European knights received land in return for their military service. They had control over the serfs working that land. Japanese samurai on the other had no land. Instead, they used some of the money that was earned by taxing peasants as a way to pay the samurai.

This class included peasants in Japan who were farmers, artisans, or merchants. In feudal japan the farmers were very important, especially to the shoguns. The Japanese farmers were the main source of food for them. They were able to avoid importing a lot of foreign food. In feudal Japanese society, merchants were the lowest-ranking class. People looked down on merchants because they were dishonestly selling things made by others, and taking their credit. They were rich and were considered one of the most benefited classes in feudal Japan, even though they weren’t popular and were the lowest class. In the Middle Ages, the European peasants had the same social status as the Japanese peasants.

Slaves were sold and bought, as well as serfs who did not have any rights. They were required to feed the upper classes of the society, so they mainly engaged in agriculture. They did not own land, so they had to pay taxes both in cash and kind to those who provided them with land.

Conclusion Even though feudalism ended in Japan, it still persists in certain European countries. Japan and Europe both had feudal societies that shared many similarities, as well as some differences. European feudalism had been around for a little longer than Japanese, being established between the 9th-12th centuries.

Differences Between Elizabethan Theatre And Modern Theatre

As it wasn’t considered a respectable occupation, only males were allowed in Elizabethan theaters. Teenage girls would dress as men who had yet to reach puberty. A profession that was neither highly respected nor well paid, acting was often considered a profession of troublemakers and promoters of ‘hard living.’ In the past, actors would travel in a wagon looking for an audience to pay to see them perform.

Men and women may perform in theatres today. The profession of acting is highly respected and appreciated. People pay to attend performances at theatres that are permanently located.

You will probably think about the Globe Theatre when you hear the words ‘Elizabethan Theatres’ or ’16th-century theatres’. It was the theater built by William Shakespeare for his play. Peter Street was most likely the architect. In the evenings, there were no lights to illuminate the theatre. They could have set fire to the stage if they used candles. The theatre was considered to be a low-class activity. Theatres were often in competition with other entertainments, like bear baiting. (This involved betting and watching bears kill dogs.) Every day, people expected to watch a different play in the theatre. The Swan, The Rose and other theatres were included.

In the modern era, a play will be ‘run’ in a theatre for many weeks, even months and years. That is ten times longer than it was during Elizabethan time. The theatres have changed dramatically. They are now shaped like boxes. The seats surround the stage on three sides. Although some theatres still have afternoon shows, most people now go to see them at night. On this photo, only men are on the stage. On this image, both mens and womens can be seen on the stage. Elizabethan theatre. This is modern-day theatre.

The top row of seats was farthest back from the stage. Although people sat in these seats, they were still in front. Rich people will want the best seats, the ones that are most exclusive and segregated, far away from the poor, rowdy people. The theatre was an exciting event. During a play, the poor would talk, yell or even throw objects (mostly rotten food) at each other. The poor would tell the rest of theatre if they didn’t enjoy the play or actors. Rich people would comment on the play from the stage.

Seats at the rear are less expensive because they have a poorer view of the stage. Plays are now a much more serious experience. The audience must be quiet throughout the entire play. It is repeated that they should be quiet and respectable. People will often go to dinner before or afterwards. Plays are usually reserved for the wealthy. Tickets are more expensive for average people.

Investigation Of How John F. Kennedy Was Responsible For Causing The Cuban Missile Crisis

Table of Contents


Thinking back on something

Works Cited

This investigation explores the question: Was John F. Kennedy to blame for the 1963 Cuban Missile Crisis? This investigation will focus on the years 1962 and 1963, as well any evidence from the pre-crisis period or post-crisis period that could be used to answer the research questions.

The primary video source shows John F. Kennedy discussing the Cuban missile issue with members of the congress. Its origins are from a broadcaster called “Universal-International News” which can be seen in the title card at the beginning of the film. It is important to note that this information is directly from John F. Kennedy. As the US president at the time of the war, he was well-versed in the details of the conflict. Since the Cuban Missiles Crisis, many have asked if US government officials intentionally withheld certain information because they were afraid it might end up in Soviet hands. This leads us to assume that John F. Kennedy’s speech may or not tell the entire story. The source could be said to have a similar limitation. The source was created to provide the American people with first-hand knowledge of the Cuban conflict, and how they will be responding. The purpose of the source is to inform the American public about the conflict that has erupted in Cuba and how the United States will respond. This speech shows that John F. Kennedy was against nuclear war. By the end, he asked Kruschev for an end to the race to dominate and maintain friendly relations between both countries. Kennedy’s speech is a good example of how he didn’t want nuclear war between the US and Soviet Union, but also that he was concerned about the danger that existed.

The Guardian published an opinion piece explaining the Cuban Missile Crisis, as well as how John F. Kennedy and the United States government handled the crisis. This source was a news article from a respected online publication. It is important to know that the information is accurate and factual. It is important to note that because it is a opinion piece, the author is free to include any bias that he wants in the story. This may be detrimental for analysis and could introduce an outlier. The article’s main purpose is to educate people and provide an introduction into the Cuban Missile Crisis. It is also a benefit that not many difficult terms are used, which can only be understood by professionals and historians. However, the limitation is that this may not be enough information for those with this level. The article is accompanied by a number of diagrams and pictures. It is also a great way to help the reader understand the article better by linking the text with images and diagrams.

InvestigationThe Cuban Missile Crisis can be described by historians as one of humanity’s pivotal moments. The Cuban nuclear crisis was part of Cold War between United States of America, and Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Both were superpowers at that time. The USA’s use of atomic weapons to destroy Nagasaki, Hiroshima and other cities in World War 2 brought an abrupt and violent end to the war. The bombs that were dropped on Hiroshima, Nagasaki and other cities are still the only nuclear weapons used in war today. Both the USA and USSR developed nuclear-capable weapons after the Second World War. These missiles could be launched in a foreign territory near the enemy and were capable of hitting them with relative precision. In June 1961, the USSR’s and USA’s political leaders began to escalate their threats with nuclear missiles.

The United States and Turkey signed an agreement on June 1, 1961 to place 15 nuclear-capable rockets in Turkey’s territory. This would allow the USA to have them ready to be used against the USSR within a short time. Nikita Kruschev at the time was not interested in being threatened by Turkey. Therefore, he wanted to have a nuclear-capable base near America so that he would be able to negotiate for land such as Berlin. Cuba was the most obvious choice. Fidel Cuba, a communist and close neighbor of the USA was its leader. Anastas Mikoyan stated that Castro was a true revolutionary. Like us. “I felt like I was back in my childhood!” Fidel and the Soviet Special Forces chief met in Havana at an unspecified date. The Special Forces chief presented their plan, which was framed in a way to make it appear as a plan of protection against an American invasion of Cuba. Castro consulted with his advisors before agreeing. John F. Kennedy was unable to control or stop this overseas development.

In order to keep the deployment secret, Soviet nuclear weapons and 42,000 Soviet soldiers were secretly delivered to Cuba by large timber cargo ships. The soldiers were dressed up as Cubans to make sure that they did not raise suspicions among any American agents stationed in Cuba. It was only mid-October 1962 that the USA learned of the missile deployment on Cuba. Kennedy found himself in a tough position. It was well known that the Soviets had built up in Cuba, and Kennedy’s political enemies were exploiting the fact he didn’t do anything about it, despite 42,000 Soviet troops and weapons being 90 miles from Florida. Kruschev was in touch with Kennedy privately, and he told him the buildup on Cuba was only defensive. Kennedy knew this and said the defensive buildup is fine. He would only take action, though, if he discovered nuclear missiles on Cuba. He thought Kruschev wouldn’t put nuclear missiles on Cuba. When analyzing Kennedy’s role, this is an important factor. He put too much faith in the Soviet leader. This was a mistake.

Kennedy realized that the Soviet Union was launching missiles against the USA and he knew he’d be impeached by the Senate if he did not take action. The heads from the government met at White House to discuss potential retaliation. Kennedy had warned Kruschev about his intentions to act against him if Kruschev placed nuclear weapons in Cuba. By not following through, Kennedy would have shown weakness and Kruschev would have been free to deploy missiles anywhere he wanted, under the false pretense of defensive deployment. Kennedy was left with three options. Diplomacy, Naval Blockade and Airstrike. Diplomacy, while it was the option that had the lowest possibility of civilian and military casualties, also failed to work and would take too long to reach a compromise. It was decided that a Naval Blockade had the best chance for success. Still, allow for some negotiation.

Kennedy and Kruschev have a communication at 1:00am Moscow-time on the 22nd. This is one hour earlier than Kennedy’s official press release, which was scheduled for 2am. Kennedy sends an ultimatum. Kennedy knows that 14 Soviet Freighters are heading for Cuba, one with the most powerful medium range nuclear missiles in the world. Kennedy threatens to use warships in the Caribbean to stop the Soviet freighters from reaching Cuba. Kennedy and Krushchev came to an agreement that resulted in the removal of missiles. Kennedy was able to claim that the Cuban Missile Crisis had been resolved.

We can conclude that John F. Kennedy did not start the Cuban Missile Crisis but he escalated the situation by threatening impeachment in the event he failed to act. Kennedy’s decision saved the entire world from mutually-assured destruction. However, he could have made better decisions if there had not been so much pressure to impeach him by all the Americans who were clamoring for it. Eisenhower, who was president prior to Kennedy, had nuclear-capable rockets stationed in Turkey. Most likely, the Soviets viewed this as an American threat and wanted to respond by placing their nuclear-capable weapons in Cuba.

ReflectionIn this investigation, I was looking to demonstrate the different reliability of sources. This is especially important in a subject that, by its nature, involves a lot of lies, cover-ups, espionage, and truths. The search for reliable sources proved difficult. But because the US government was much more transparent than the Soviet one at the same time, I decided to focus on the John F. Kennedy’s speech as my main source. The Soviets have a history of hiding the truth to try and present themselves in a better light. This would make it difficult for such sources. The Soviet sources are likely to be in Russian. For many History students, this is a foreign language. It is possible that translations of texts exist. However, this could have the disadvantage of removing some deeper meaning. The Cuban Missile Crisis is regarded by many historians as a significant historical event. Although it came very close to a major crisis, historians should not judge a historic event by its destructiveness or potential destruction, but by the positive changes it brought about in people’s life after it ended. A good example of a nuclear attack outside of Coldar is the detonation at Hiroshima or Nagasaki. Historians debate whether or not the bombs were dropped for the right reasons, but they all agree that the United States and the Soviet Union saw their destructive potential after the Second World war. Conventional warfare had been a thing of the past for many centuries. However, now both sides have bombs that can destroy entire cities as well as harm the populations of multiple countries. The Cuban Missile Crisis taught us that Americans and Russians did not think alike when they entered the situation. What was “rational”, “sane” behavior in Moscow, had been dangerously “irrational”, “sane” behaviour in Washington.

Works Cited

Chomsky, Noam. ‘Cuban missile crisis: how the US played Russian roulette with nuclear war.’ The Guardian, Accessed on 7 February 2020.

‘Cuban Missile Crisis.’ History, Accessed on 13 February 2020.

‘Cuban Missile Crisis – Eyeball to Eyeball – Extra History – #2.’ YouTube, uploaded by Extra Credits, Google, Accessed on 13 February 2020.

‘Cuban Missile Crisis – The Failed Checkmate – Extra History – #1.’ YouTube, uploaded by Extra Credits, Google, Accessed on 13 February 2020.

John Lewis Gaddis is a prominent figure in the field of history. His works have contributed to the understanding of the past and shaped the way people look at history. He has written numerous books on the topic, offering insight into the history of certain events and periods. Gaddis’ writings provide readers with a better understanding of the past and its effects on the present. Cold War: A new history New York, Penguin Books, 2007.

‘The history of the Cuban Missile Crisis – Matthew A. Jordan.’ YouTube, uploaded by TED-Ed, Google, Accessed on 13 February 2020.

‘John F. Kennedy Missile Crisis.’ YouTube, Google, Accessed 7 February 2020.

Cold War: A Multidisciplinary History, by David S. Painter. New York: Routledge, 1999.

Republic Of Rwanda: Languages, Religion, Culture, Agriculture

Types of communication

French, English Kinyarwanda & Swahili is the official language of Rwanda. Kinyarwanda speaks by over 12 million people and is an ethnic Bantu in many countries. These include: Rwanda, Uganda, the Demographic of Congo. Kinyarwanda is the only language spoken in Rwanda. The Hutu people, Tutsi people, and Twa speak it. Kinyarwanda became the language of their culture during the 15thcentury after close contact between these ethnic groups. Rwandans speak it the most, 93% of them. The official status of the language allows it to be used in education, administration, media and commerce. Rwanda, as a former Belgian territory, adopted French. French was once a colonial dialect, but today only 0.1% of people speak it, and they are mostly educated. After the Rwandan Genocide of 1994, English gradually replaced French.

After the genocide, the Rwandans completely cut themselves off from France and its influences. English is Rwanda’s 3rd official language. About 0.2% speak it. It was introduced in 2008 to the Rwandan school system. In order to move away from French influence and align Rwanda with East Africa, the transition from French into English began. English has an added economic advantage by increasing foreign investment from English-speaking countries. In Rwandese schools, English is the main language of instruction. In February 2017, the Rwandan government made Swahili a national language. The East African Community asked for its adoption after requesting that Swahili be included as an official language. The language will be used for administrative purposes and official documents. Swahili has been adopted as an obligatory subject for the curriculum.


Six major religious beliefs are prevalent in Rwanda. These include Roman Catholicism alongside Protestantism and any other form of Christianity. This makes up 96.3%. Roman Catholicism was introduced to Rwandans in 1891, when German East Africa became part of Rwanda. In Rwanda, the Protestantism religion is second in size, with 45.4%. Belgian missionaries were sent to Rwanda after World War One. This was due to Belgium taking control of Rwanda (1916-1962) as Ruanda/Urundi. In the 1930s, Protestantism became more popular in Rwanda and its surrounding areas.

Additionally, all forms of Christianity together represent 4,4% of Rwandans. This makes it the third-largest religion in Rwanda. Jehovah’s Witnesses in Rwanda are one of the most notable groups and the ones who face the most harassment. Islam is Rwanda’s 4th largest religion. Only 1.8% practice it. Sunni Islam dominates the majority of Muslims. In the 18th-century, it is believed that traders from East Coast of Africa brought the religion to Rwanda. But it was not until the late 19th century when it began to become an important part of Rwanda. Rwanda has a population of 1,8% who are atheists, agnostics or both.

Atheists and Agnostics in Rwanda are not counted as citizens and it is considered a bad thing to be non-religious. There has been a rise in people who are atheists or agnostics since the Rwandan Genocide. Only 0.1% of Rwandans claim to follow African folk belief. Few people in Rwanda practice African folk belief, but many other religions incorporate traditional elements in their practices. African Folk believes in Imaana the supreme being, and also other lesser gods. These deities are also believed to be communicable via the spirits and ancestors.


Hutu is the most dominant ethnic group in Rwanda. Hutu ethnicity is dominant in Burundi (the country), Rwanda, and certain parts of the Demographic republic of Congo. It is a majority ethnic group in Rwanda. The 2015 census shows that it comprises 84% of the total population. Hutu migrated to the Great Lakes Region as a result the Bantu expansion. Hutu speakers speak Rwandan-Bundu. This language is further divided into Kinyarwanda or Kirundi which are the official national languages of Rwanda and Burundi. Tutsi form a subgroup of Banyarwanda, which is mostly found in Rwanda or Burundi. About 15% of Rwandans are Tutsi, making them Rwanda’s largest ethnic group. Tutsi is divided into 2 groups. The Tutsi of Northern Rwanda are called Ruguru. The Tutsi of Southern Burundi, on the other hand, are called Hima. Since more than 400 years, Tutsi people have been living in Rwanda. The Tutsis are native speakers of Rwanda-Rundi (a combination of Kinyarwanda & Kirundi).

French is spoken in France as a third or second language. Twas are the most enduring people of Great Lakes, currently inhabiting Burundi. Uganda. Rwanda. In Rwanda, the Twa are a small ethnic group that makes up less than 1% of total population. The Twa, semi-nomadic hunters & gatherers who live in agricultural communities with their farming neighbors. Arriving in Rwanda with Hutu in the 15th AD, the Twa were distinct and of mixed ancestry. The Twa had to move away from the mountains forests due to increased logging and agriculture. In the end, they were marginalized by a lack of access to essential amenities, such as schools, and continued to be discriminated and treated with prejudice because of their pygmy origins.

Society’s beliefs and values

Umushanana was the traditional Rwandese dress made of barkcloth and animal skin. Clothing is made up of a long, full-length skirt with a ribbon that wraps around the shoulder. A blouse is worn on top. Traditional male clothing consists of wrapper skirts and beads. Rwandese food staples include sweet potatoes and beans. They also eat cassava and mashed cassava. Lake Kivu residents eat tilapia, mud fish or other fish that are commonly caught. As well as beef, pork, and goat, these meats are eaten either roasted or stewed. Dairy is also produced by local Rwandese who are prominent cattle breeders. The milk is fermented and used to make Ghee or Ikivuguto.

Rwandese artisans are well-versed in the art of handcrafting. They can make a variety of items, including clay pots. Handcrafts are produced in villages such as Ivuka, Rwanda Nziza or Caplaki. Rwandan crafts can be found in all regions, each with its own unique craft. In the south-east, for example, Imigongo (cow dung mixed in with soils of different colors) is very popular. Rwanda’s festival focus on its rich culture and art. Rwandan Film Festivals include Hillywood Film Festival and Rwandan Mini Film Festival. The Rwandan Mini Film Festival takes place annually in March and gives amateur filmmakers from around Rwanda the opportunity to show off their talent. Hillywood Film Festival was created to promote Rwanda’s growing industry and hope it will be like the Nigerian industry one day. Every July, the festival showcases the talents of African filmmakers. A gorilla naming ceremony is also held in Kiningi every year.

In Rwanda during the three month period in 1994, 800,000 Tutsis as well as moderate Hutus died in the Rwandan Genocide. The United Nations declared April 7th the Day of Remembrance of the Rwandan Genocide Victims. Rwandans honor the 800,000.0 victims who died during the genocide. Many people in the world honor the victims by lighting a candle and observing a moment’s silence. During festivals, weddings and social gatherings there are usually music, drama and dance performances.

Rwandese dances are divided into two main categories: Intore, which is a dance that encourages fighters or hunters to fight and Inkinimba, which is a dance performed by farmers in celebration of their harvest. Inkinimba is performed to tell stories of the culture and history of the country, or to honor fallen Rwandese heros. All these performances are accompanied by instruments like the Amakonder, a Rwandese Cow Horn, Inanga and Ingoma, drums and Onigiri, a locally-made guitar, and Muduli. In the past, the hill was a grouping of families who lived on a particular hill. Each hill had its own chief who served as a link between the populace and the monarch. Chieftaincies have been abolished since the 1960s. However, most people live in family compounds that are surrounded by fields and banana groves.

Men and woman are equally divided in the agricultural sector. Men break up the ground and assist the women, while the women take care of most day-to-day activities like planting, harvesting, and weeding. In addition, men are in charge of the heavier jobs, like building, while women take care of the family, raise children, and cook food. Men and women are also treated differently in Rwanda. Women in Rwanda have very limited political power and economic power. Women’s groups in Rwanda have been trying to elevate the status women, but they have not had much success.

War On The Colonies: French, Indian War And American Revolution

After the French and Indian War of 1763 ended in defeat, few would have predicted a civil war that would be so destructive and devastating between the colonies.

French and Indian War was a catalyst for the American Revolution. In the middle of the 1700s France moved into the Ohio River Valley. The colonies would be at odds with this. The British declared war against France in 1756. Due to a lack in equipment and Indians who knew the terrain, Britain initially suffered defeat. William Pitt started borrowing money in 1757 to finance the wars in the colonies. The debt of the nation increased in 1763 to 122,000,000 pounds. The debt today would equal 24,385,017.543,.86 pound. In 1760, both the British and the French were defeated in India. The French and Indian War ended in 1763 with the Hubertusberg and Paris Treaties. France lost the entire land of Canada with this treaty, while Spain received Louisiana and Britain gained Upper Canada. The British feared that the Indians would retaliate against them, so they decided to keep an army on the ground in the colonies. The bitterness felt by the French after their defeat was to play a significant role in causing the American Revolution.

The American Revolution has already begun without anyone realizing. The French were enraged, the British were heavily indebted and had an army stationed in the colonies. Meanwhile, the colonies enjoyed the moment. Britain’s relationship with the Indians wasn’t great. So in 1763 Great Britain issued The Proclamation of1763. This was a move to appease Native Americans, and it prohibited land acquisition or expansion west of Appalachian Mountains. Many land-hungry settlers, speculators and investors were angry. The British did this because they didn’t wish to cause resentment towards the French or their Indian allies, and ignite another conflict. Next, they felt the need for tighter control over their Empire. Since many years, laws regarding imperial navigation and trade had been passed. However, colonists often evaded them. The colonists’ trade with the French was brought to the mother country’s attention. The British were angry and believed that the colonists should repay the motherland for the defense they provided. In 1764, the Sugar Act was passed to combat the smuggling and illegal importation of sugar from non British Caribbean sources. The British would give a favorable hearing to anyone suspected of smuggling, or violating the customs laws.

It was this provision that caused colonists to be angry, the Currency Law. Colonies were constantly short of money to conduct business. The colonies issued their own currency, which was different from colony-to-colony. The British Parliament was able to control the currency crisis and prevented the printing of new currency and reissuing old currency. Colonists said that pound shearlings are so rare in colonies, they would only worsen confusion and the crisis surrounding their currency. Colonists became angry and the trade in their colonies slowed. Stamp Acts were then hurled at the colonies in March of 1765. It was the first time that Parliament had attempted to assert its authority over colonies. The colonies taxed everything, including daily necessities like playing cards and newspapers. The Stamp Act was met with a variety of negative colonial responses, from boycotts to British goods and riots to attacks on tax collectors. The Quartering Act passed soon after. It required colonies to provide barracks for British soldiers. The localities had to accommodate soldiers in inns, pubs, wine houses, alehouses, livery houses and stables if there were not enough barracks to house everyone. This new law was not well received by the colonists. They were taxed for supplies and barracks, and had to house soldiers in their homes.

Virginia Resolves followed, condemning the Stamp Act. They also showed that thirteen colonies can be united. Now, the colonies are moving towards unity. Separation is a distant thought. In June 1767, the Townshend Revenue Act became law. In 1767 the British parliament passed a series measures to tax goods imported into the American colonial colonies. American colonists, however, who were not represented in Parliament, viewed the actions as an abuse. Colonists boycotted British products in response. Colonists used pine needles and home spun cloth to make tea instead of paying the unfair taxes levied by their mother country. The colonists also harassed tax collectors, merchants and others who broke the boycott. They even practiced “Feathering and Tarring”. In this method, the victim’s clothes were either removed or stripped down to their waist. The victim was immobilized and then tar was poured on or painted over them. Feathers are then thrown onto the victim, or they can be rolled in a pile to ensure that the feathers stick. It was meant as a punishment for public humiliation, not to kill.

Boston merchants felt frustrated because of the heavy taxes, unfair representations and lack of currency. New York, Philadelphia and other cities signed the Boston Non-Importation agreement in August 1768. The boycott lasted up until 1770. Great Britain then repealed their tax laws. Colonists believed they had won and perhaps even thought they would succeed if persistent enough with their demands. Boston Massacre was one of the greatest events in the history of America. Bostonians reacted to the British soldiers’ presence with a vengeance. Soldiers endured being hit with snowballs and sticks repeatedly, as well as rocks. The soldiers were either frightened for their own lives or lost all patience. The soldiers shot into the crowd, resulting in three deaths on-site and eight other injuries. The town met to demand the removal and trial of the British officers and Captain. Paul Revere escalated the conflict when he created an engraving showing innocent, peaceful citizens being murdered by British soldiers. Despite the escalation of relations between civilians and soldiers and the repealing of acts, two taxes continued to be collected: tea and sugar.

Great Britain, realizing that the British East India Company faced bankruptcy, granted it a monopoly over the colonies. Direct sale of British tea would eliminate the need for local merchants. Tea prices were lowered dramatically to increase sales. The merchants were not happy with this. The colonists of Philadelphia and New York sent the tea ships to Britain. The cargo in Charleston was left on the docks to rot. The Royal Governor in Boston was stubborn, and refused to let the ships unload. Tea cargos filled Boston’s harbor. British ship crews remained in Boston to find work, but often got into trouble. The Boston Tea Party was the result of this situation. Many colonists boycotted the tea because they saw through the evil plan. In several ports, violence threats were issued. Most ships turned around after being forced to do so. Boston’s reaction was very interesting. Three ships entered the port. On a freezing December night 342 chests were dumped in the harbor. The perpetrators were not identifiable because they had been disguised as Native Americans. The British East India Company suffered a loss of over $375,000 in today’s economy. The British East India Company was angered and passed the Intolerable acts. The Intolerable Acts, which were intended to bring the rebellious colonists back in line, had the opposite effect and only fueled rebellions across North America. Boston and Massachusetts were singled out as being the centers of rebellion.

The Intolerable Acts – which were enacted in 1774 – closed Boston Harbor. They replaced the local Massachusetts government with a federally appointed one. They allowed British officials accused with capital crimes to have their cases tried in England or other colonies. And they revived a law that prohibited quartering. The first Continental Congress, which met in September 1774 as a response to these Intolerables Acts, discussed how to best unite and resist British rule. This congress had varying goals, some wanted to resolve the issue with England while others desired separation. They all agreed that Parliament and King must understand the grievances of the colonists and communicate them to the rest. The first Continental congress was successful in forming the Association (or Continental Association), which would enforce an anti-British boycott. Delegates here hoped Britain will repeal the Intolerable Acts. Virginia Convention took place shortly after. Patrick Henry delivers his famous “Give Me Liberty or Give Me Death” speech. Henry, convinced that war was imminent, proposed to raise militias throughout the colonies. The proposal was not shocking to many. Henry declared that war was already in progress and that colonists should not be idle. The speech changed the tide in favor defensive action. Henry appointed a new committee that was charged with preparing Virginia for war. The call to arms coincided with the “shot that rang around the globe” which was the result of a skirmish between British troops at Lexington and Concord and the colonial minutes.

General Gage, a British officer, set off for the settlements of John Hancock and Sam Adams to capture gunpowder. Paul Revere led a group of riders on horseback to alert the country to the British arrival and prepare themselves. Paul Revere was not the one who shouted “the British will be coming”, because many Americans believed themselves to be British. He shouted the arrival of the Regulars, because the soldiers were British. The events of Lexington and Concord resulted in the deaths of minutemen and British troops advancing on Boston. A second Continental Congress was created as a direct result. George Washington became the supreme command of the Continental Army. It was not just a congress that addressed grievances. It was also a government. Congress authorized printing money and the creation of a committee that would manage foreign relations. Many delegates did not want to separate from Great Britain until recently. Congress even approved an Olive Branch Petition. The petition was a formal appeal to King George III, in which delegates requested a peaceful settlement and pledged loyalty to King George III. The King rejected the request and declared them rebellious. The King then ordered Hessian soldiers to control the colonies. Americans felt betrayed more than ever by the thought that their motherland had ordered foreign goons subdued them. The tensions escalated and, by the summer of 1776 an official declaration was adopted.

The battle of Fort Ticonderoga followed. Washington drove General Howe’s forces from the city. British forces moved on to New York and drove Washington’s men from Staten Island. Washington maneuvered his men into Manhattan in the fog on that particular night. After Burgoyne’s surrender, the Americans were able to win at Saratoga. The French involvement became public, and this was important. Since 1776, they had been secretly providing financial and material assistance. The French declared war against Britain in 1778. The Americans were struggling to survive in Valley Forge during a harsh winter. Freiherr von Steuben instilled discipline into the soldiers, making them more capable fighters. The North saw a lot of stalemate. The Americans were able to control the Northwest after many victories and losses. The American army suffered internal defeats. Mutinies took place in 1780-1781 because of misunderstood enlistment conditions, bad food, clothing and lack of compensation. Maj. John Andre, who was a spy for Benedict Arnold and helped him betray West Point for the British, was hanged. Cornwallis controlled Fredericksburg from Charlottesville to the end. He also began to defend against American forces. In addition, there was a naval war. It was fought between American ally and British. In the end, the Americans won the battle of Yorktown. The Peace treaty of Paris signed on 3 September 1783 recognized the United States’ independence. The American Revolution was won by British mistakes and American efforts with French assistance.

I consider the American Revolution inevitable. They colonized America for freedom, and not to recreate the old world. British aid in fighting Indian attacks increased Great Britain’s huge debts, further destroying their empire. To regain control over the vast empire, Great Britain tried to tax and fight against their colonies. This was a grave mistake. Instead of listening and advising, Britain simply imposed. The Americans made numerous attempts to resolve the matter peacefully. But the arrogance of the Crown and its pride dismissed their offers. I suppose that war was avoided. Great Britain, however, underestimated colonists who wanted to obey their rules.

History Of American Life In The Early Postwar Era

Table of Contents

School desegregation

Montgomery Bus Boycott

The Civil Rights Bills 1957 and 1960


In-text citations

The United States of America’s entry into World War II brought about significant changes in all aspects of American life. Men and women both joined the military because of the war industry’s need for labor. Due to this demand, Americans moved to areas of the Atlantic and Pacific coasts, as well as the Gulf Coast, where military plants were located. In September 1945, World War II came to an end. In spite of the many casualties in World War II, the United States was the most prosperous country on earth at the end of the conflict. Americans gained confidence and optimism in 1945 as they experienced a sense of victory over Germany and Japan. Her view was that the period 1945-1950 saw a high level of economic growth as well as general post-war developments. Many were surprised by the rapid growth of American economy. The GI Bill of Rights of 1943, as an example of public policies, gave money to war heroes for college educations, homes and farms. After years of separation from their girlfriends or wives, thousands of American young military men returned to find that they had not been forgotten. After the war, the marriage rate increased. Many couples decided that the end of the war and the promise for prosperity in America around the globe was the best time to start a new family. This led to an unusually large number being born. The ‘baby-boom’ was the name of this trend. The ‘baby boom’ lasted from 1946-1964. Early post-war times were a time of social conservatism in many ways. Men and women’s roles were usually very clear and traditional. After World War II, many women returned home to their domestic life after working in factories. In the 1950s, the feminism that was so prevalent in the 1920s and early 1940s disappeared. Many Americans believed that this prosperity benefited white Americans while those who were not white were excluded. African Americans were among the groups that became more active after the war in an effort to secure their civil rights and full freedom. African Americans organized and united. Additional laws passed made discrimination against the law and established federal oversight of voting rights. The United States capitalists and their political allies also opposed the Soviet Union as well as other communist states. The Cold War began as a result of this kind of confrontation. Cold War began in earnest when the Soviet Union succeeded in exploding their first nuclear bomb, which occurred on April 1, 1949. The Red Scare was also known as McCarthyism Era or simply McCarthyism. It spanned roughly 1947-1954 and saw many Americans experiencing heightened fears over the spread of Communism. The possibility of communists infiltrating the United States was a major concern. The communism which spread across America after World War II was the greatest cause for concern. It had a profound impact on many aspects of culture. Americans were so enraged by their religious and patriotic feelings that they sought protection against ‘godless communism’. McCarthy, a Republican senator, was the leader of the Red Scare. The Republican Senator Joseph McCarthy became famous because of his crusade in opposition to communism. Many Americans were falsely accused during the Red Scare. This hostility between two groups was a major concern for mankind during the past two frightening decades, and threatened the balance of the planet. In recent years, the significance of this hostility has diminished. There is a natural call which was developed in the cold-war era, but has been repressed by the new issues and competition. After 1945, the Cold War was widely accepted as a reality. Majority of US foreign-policy initiatives received a lot of support. The Cold War ended irreparably in 1968 after the United States invaded Vietnam militarily. The critics who claimed that Americans fell prey to bureaucratic systems that robbed them of spontaneity and their individuality are biased. In the early years of the postwar period, Americans faced a number of challenges as they tried to adapt to war’s effects. Upon the end of World War II many African American soldiers returned to their home country, confident that their nation would honor their loyalty. After the war, African-American soldiers returned home with the hope that their country would appreciate them and their sacrifice. The “Second Reconstruction” of America, which lasted from the end World War II to the late 1960s was a period in which the country began to correct abuses against civil and human rights that had been prevalent for over a century. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, a traditional organization, was one of the many organizations that tried to eliminate discrimination in the United States prior to the Civil Rights Movement of the years 1955-1972. The American Civil Rights Movement was characterized by these efforts from 1896 until 1954. By 1955, the government’s slow response to desegregation was a result of the “Massive Resistance” of intransigent proponents who were adamant about racial and voter segregation. Civil rights activists used a combination of nonviolent and direct resistance as well as civil disobedience to respond. Authorities at all levels (federal, state, local) were required to take immediate actions to stop the crisis. The outcomes of the protests were deemed to be increasingly favorable for the protesters. Civil disobedience was practiced in many different ways, including boycotts like the Montgomery Bus Boycott. It also included’sit-ins’ and protest march. The success of these events was due to the fact that they forced the courts into action by hearing cases. School desegregation After World War II, the NAACP legal strategy to protect civil rights was successful. Thurgood Martin led the NAACP Legal Defense Fund in a campaign to overturn discrimination and achieve equal educational opportunities. In May 1954 the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Brown V. Board of Education, a landmark case that declared racially separated education unconstitutional. White opposition had grown in the South by 1955. This was a strategy used to convince all whites not to comply with desegregation orders. According to the belief, if sufficient people refused compliance with the federal order, it couldn’t be enforced. The tactic included firing teachers who wanted integration. Closing public schools was preferred to desegregation. In the years immediately following the Brown ruling, almost no school in the South was desegregated. Many schools were desegregated on paper because of racially separated neighborhoods. In the 1970s, some districts tried to overcome this issue by busing their students away from their neighborhood. The Montgomery Bus Boycott Despite threats and violence, this struggle quickly expanded beyond desegregation of schools to include segregation elsewhere. Rosa Parks – a member of Montgomery’s NAACP – was ordered to give her seat up on a bus in 1955. Parks was jailed when she refused. Edgar D. Nixon of the NAACP local, which was in charge, realized that Parks’ arrest would rally local blacks against segregated transportation. It lasted over a year, and it was a powerful way to show the American public that blacks in South were determined to end the segregation. In November 1956, a federal court ordered Montgomery buses to be desegregated. The boycott was a success. Martin Luther King, Jr., an 18-year-old Baptist minister, led the Montgomery Improvement Association, who directed the boycott. The protests elevated King to a national level. Seine eloquent pleas for Christian Brotherhood and American Idealism made an impression on both people in and outside of South. King was named president of Southern Christian Leadership Conference at its founding in 1957. SCLC encouraged nonviolent and direct action as a complement to the NAACP legal strategy. The activities that were undertaken included marches and demonstrations as well as boycotts. The white response was violent and forced the federal authorities to take action against racism and injustice. King’s appeal to Northern liberals was powerful, and helped him to influence public opinion in the United States. Peace activists were drawn to his nonviolent advocacy. He developed strong ties with ministers at wealthy and influential Protestant congregations in Northern Cities. King raised funds by preaching in those congregations. Martin Luther King, Jr., a nonviolent demonstrator against segregation, was jailed in Birmingham and wrote a longhand note from his cell. This was King’s response to an eight-member group of white Southern religious leaders who had issued a public warning and expressed concern. In his response, he detailed the differences between “unjust law,” and “justlaw,” that a law made by man is one which aligns itself with moral laws or God’s Law, while unjust laws are those that do not.

Malcolm X was a powerful and charismatic speaker who became a national symbol for the Black Power movement in the early 1960s. Malcolm X’s criticism of white society, as well as the mainstream civil right movement, brought national attention to the Nation of Islam. Malcolm believed that African Americans were victims in the recent past, but not in the current. His ideas have helped African Americans believe in themselves and their culture. Malcolm X influenced a younger generation of African American leaders to preach black nationalism as well as economic self-sufficiency. Malcolm X’s revolutionary ideas resonated with the already-existing Dr. King movement.

The Civil Rights Bills Of 1957 And 1960In 1956 a civil rights legislation began to pass through Congress. This was partly due to the efforts of groups such as NAACP. It also had a lot to do with proposals made by Eisenhower Justice Department under Herbert Brownell. Southern opponents, knowing that legislation was on the way, used amendments to slow down and weaken reform. The House approved the measure with a 279-97 margin. Southern opponents, however, managed to eliminate voting protections. Powell and Diggs both argued strongly on the House Floor against a weak bill. Paul H. Douglas and William F. Knowland from California, both Minority leaders in the Senate and members of Eastland’s Judiciary Committee pushed the bill to the Senate floor. The Senate passed the Civil Rights Act of 1956 on August 29. The act set up a U.S. Commission on Civil Rights that would serve for two years. A civil rights division was created in the Justice Department. A year later the Civil Rights Act of ’60, again severely weakened in the south, was passed. This act extended the CCR for another two years and required that all voting records and registrations at federal elections were preserved. After World War II there were many changes in the economic standing of countries. The United States’ economic growth was shocking, given the global economic slowdown. This is due to the good economic policy that gave money to war heroes that improved their lives. Money was distributed to the population to help the economy grow and prosper. The large number of babies born within the State provided a ready supply of labor in the years to come. In countries with a growing population, the economic growth is proportional. It is common for such demographic trends to be characterized by urbanization. The USA has also benefited greatly from this. Sources

Schlesinger, A. (1967). Origins Of The Cold War. Foreign Affairs, 46(1), 22-52.

Martin Luther King Jr. (1992) explored the concept of… Birmingham Prison Letter. University of California, Davis. Rev., 26, 835.

Martin Luther King Jr. (2002) wrote about… Birmingham City Jail Letter Civil disobedience (pp. 74-90). Routledge.

Tyner, J. A. (2004). Malcolm X’s speech on gendered and territorial revolutions. The Institute of British Geographers published a journal in which the issue of Transactions (Volume 29, Issue 3) contained articles spanning pages 330-343.

Wolk, A. (1971). The President and Black Civil Rights: Eisenhower through Nixon FDU Press

King, M. E. (1987). Freedom Song: A Personal Story Of The 1960s Civil Right Movement (p. 437). New York: William Morrow and Company.

Mettler, S. (2005). The creation of GI Bill of Rights of 1984: Blending social citizenship and participatory ideals. The Journal of Policy History published an article in the 17th volume of their journal, exploring the topic in detail across four pages of analysis (345-374).

Eckstein, O., & Sinai, A. (1986). The business cycle in post-war America. The American Business Cycle: Continuity And Change (pp. 39-122). The University of Chicago Press.

Roof, W. C., & Greer, B. (1993). A Generation of Searchers: The Spiritual Journeys Of The Baby Boomer Generation (p.30). San Francisco: Harper San Francisco.

The Role Of The Six Day War In Arab-israeli Relations

The Six Day War in 1967 marked a turning-point for Arab-Israeli relationships. The conflict was short and bloody. It involved Israel, Syria, Jordan, and Egypt. Israel Defense Forces (IDF), after years of diplomatic disagreements, pre-emptively launched airstrikes on Egypt (Shlaim, Louis, 2012). Israel then seized Gaza Strip and Sinai in Egypt, Golan Heights in Syria, East Jerusalem & West Bank & West Bank in Jordan. The UN brokered ceasefire, which ended the conflict quickly. However, the legacy of this conflict still dictates Arab-Israeli Relations. The Arab world saw the end to Nasser’s pan-Arab nationalism and, in response, a return to conservative Islam. Fundamentalism in the Arab world led to an upsurge in terrorism. The terrorism is now regularly used by the Arab side to discredit it in Arab-Israeli affairs. In a similar way, Israel’s victory in the Six-Day War boosted conservative Zionism among Jews. In part because of this boost to right-wing fundamentalists, Israeli foreign policies towards the Arabs are still dominated by their culture. Most important is, however, the bilateral relationship between the US and Israel that was born out of the Six Day War. Israel’s military and economy continue to grow stronger as a result of the dangerous codependence created by the relationship. The Six Day War was a catalyst for extremism, both in the Arabs and Israelis worlds. It also led to US interference and ruined Arab-Israeli ties.

Israel and their allies frequently use the Six Day War in Arab Israeli relations to discredit Arab Foreign Policy. In the early twentieth century, efforts were made to build a pan Arab nationalalism that was aligned more with liberalists and socialists than traditional Islam. Nasserism – a new form of nationalism that was inspired by the ideas of Nasser as Egypt’s second president – was the strongest expression of this nationalistic fervor. The model was designed to promote unity among Arabs against Western colonialism. The Six Day War led to the demise of Nasserism, and the return of Islamic fundamentalism. Many Arabs believed that the abandonment of Islam was responsible for the 1967 loss. After the War, Islamic groups became more powerful as nationalists began to abandon liberal and socialist ideologies for fundamentalism. Ayman al Zawahri’s story illustrates the rise of fundamentalism. Ayman told a story of how, at fifteen years old, the defeat in 1967, and the execution a few months earlier of SayyidQutb the spiritual leader for the Muslim Brotherhood had inspired him to found an organization that would seek to replace Nasser through an islamist caliphate. Fawaz Gerges concluded, after interviewing those who later joined Islamic Jihadists groups, that the defeat of the six-day war was a pivotal event in helping to understand why Islamic militants have become such a powerful force in the Middle East. Ayman al Zawahri, who called for the liberation of Palestine, became the leader of an Islamic Jihad faction in 1978. Islamic Jihad assassinated Egyptian president Anwar Sadat by 1981. Sadat signed a peace agreement with Israel two years prior. Osama and Ayman, Zawahri included, issued the ‘World Islamic Front against Jews And Crusaders Fatwa’ in 1988. This kind of extremism has frequently been used by Israel to discredit Arab foreign policy in Arab-Israeli relations – “Hezbollah-controlled Lebanon now presides over the UN Security Council. It means that, in essence, a terrorist organization is now the head of the UN Security Council, which is tasked with ensuring the security of the world (Netanyahu 2011). Israel’s Prime Minster, Benjamin Netanyahu, is open about the fact that Islamic Fundamentalism has been used as a tool to discredit Arabs. These events changed the American public’s opinion towards us” (Netanyahu). The Six Day War saw the end of pan-Arab nationalism, which was a pre-war ideology, and the return of fundamentalist Islam, according to Israelis, that would pollute the future of Arabic foreign policy. Israel’s mood on June 10 1967 was one of euphoria. A young nation that had been relatively small, Israel had just taken over the Gaza Strip & Sinai Peninsula in Egypt. They also took the Golan Heights in Syria and East Jerusalem & the West Bank out of Jordan. The country had just celebrated its victory against much of Arab society. In the years before the war, there was a dispute within Judaism regarding Zionism. Many Orthodox Jews believed that returning to Israel would be forbidden until the Messiah arrived. Now, many saw that the conquest was a’sign from God’s providence.’ This legitimised the occupation. Hillel Cook, Zionist leader and spokesman for the Zionist party, shared this opinion: ‘The IDF is absolute sanctity. It represents rule by the Lord’s people in His land”. Although some Jews argued in favor of returning the occupied Arab territories, the conquest gave a powerful voice those who advocated a continued occupation. This led to a rise in popularity for Jewish fundamentalists and the idea of a “Greater Israel”. “It is a major factor in the rise of a right-wing messianic ideology and expansionism which did not exist prior to 1967. Israel’s takeover of the West Bank was followed by an explosion in settlement building. These became major obstacles to peace. Israel’s secular government remained in place after the 1967 victory. Six Day War however, had empowered Zionists. Six Years Later, following the Yom Kippur War and a Coalition of Political Conservatives and Religious Zionists. The fundamentalist conservatism that was at the forefront of Israeli politics for over 40 years continues to be the driving force behind Israeli policy. ‘…the Six Day War is a permanent teaching that has shaped Israeli foreign policy ever since Israel refused to sign a peace deal with Egypt. Israel has been “favouring expansion over security” since the Six Day War. Israel is found to be “continuing to enforce severe, discriminatory restrictions against Palestinians’ rights”. It has also restricted movement of people and goods in and out of Gaza Strip.

The Six Day War is the origin of the current US-Israeli relationship. The relationship is characterized by the continued blocking of peace negotiations and the continuous strengthening of Israel’s economic and military strength. US support of Israel was weak before 1967. It is true that there have been many instances of conflict. In 1956 President Eisenhower, together with England and France, made Israel give up Sinai after its invasion. The Six Day War radically altered this position. In the early 1960s, British bases began to be removed from the Gulf area (Telhami Indyk Stein 2017). Arabs wanted weapons so badly that they were willing to give up their land to the Soviets in exchange of weapons. The US was forced to take direct action in order to achieve both of its priorities: stopping the Soviet Union and ensuring oil flow. Israel’s victory over Nasser was a huge service to the US. Nasser, a symbol for secular, independent Arab nationalism, posed a threat to US leadership in a certain sphere (Chomsky,2002). It was therefore strategic to give support to Israel after its conquest of 1967. Israel is used by the US as a satellite to influence the Middle East. The Arab-Israeli relationship has been shaped by this support ever since. Israel is a nation the US needs to be worried about. Israel would then become part of Middle East and be the region’s most advanced nation, similar to Luxembourg and Switzerland. Israel’s utility to the US will be reduced in this scenario, since the country is reliant on the US for its entire reliability. US vetoed 42 resolutions on Palestine in the UN Security Council, thus blocking the way to a peaceful settlement. More than half of the 83 times that they used their veto have been in this case. Israel is dependent on US military and financial strength. It receives $3.1 billion military aid, and $8 in guarantee loan. The Six Day War marked a new relationship between the US and Israel that frames pro-Israel relations between Arabs and Israelis.

The Six-Day War marked a turning point in Arab-Israeli relations. Israel captured territory from three Arab countries in just six days. The Arab world saw the defeat as a failure of Nasserism, and the return to Islamic extremism. Later this fundamentalism would undermine Arabic foreign policies. Israel’s conquest was a turning point in its history, as it ushered the religious Zionism movement into the mainstream, giving a boost to the nationalistic conservative sector that continues to dominate and set the agenda for their expansive international policy. As far as international implications go, the 1967 war established the strongest relationship between Arabs and Israelis. Israel developed an economic and military dependence on US that would lead to peace settlements in this region being blocked. The Six Day War was a major event in the history of Israel and the US. Its effects, though beneficial to certain parties (Israel and US), have continued to cause problems for Arab Israeli relations.

The Bacon’s Rebellion In The History Of Jamestown

Nathaniel Bacon Jr. described the reasons for the rebellion that he was a part of, Bacon’s Rebellion, which occurred in 1676. Jamestown was an English-founded colony in America. William Berkeley was eventually forced to take over the colony after Bacon’s actions.

The rebellion began as a dissatisfaction and evolved into something bigger. There were many factors involved, among them the anti Indian sentiment prevalent, Berkeley’s favoritism towards Indians, and Bacons’s premature actions. The anti-Indian stance is the most ill-founded. This sentiment is partially true, as there were some small raids carried out by Indians. However, they also blamed other factors on Indians that had nothing to do with them. One of those was the economic problem they were facing at the same time. It was a combination of depreciating tobacco prices, increasing competition from nearby colonies, and British-imposed trading laws. The Indians were used as a scapegoat by the settlers because of the economic problems they faced. Berkeley’s clear favoritism of merchants with little or no contact with Indians did not help. Berkeley, in an effort to maintain peace and to stop raids, called a long assembly to try and keep things calm. The town then allied against the Indians they considered bad. Long Assembly decided to create a protection zone around the city in order for it to be protected. But this came at a cost, as the citizens did not agree with what the assembly wanted. Trading with Indians was also highly regulated. Only a select few merchants, many of whom were Berkeley’s close friends, were allowed to do so. Nathaniel Bacon Jr., one of those traders negatively affected by these regulations, protested vigorously before turning his ire on the Indians. Bacon made his own men to hunt down the Indians he thought had wronged him and his colony because Berkeley did not do a good job of addressing it. As a first step, Bacons’ group drove the Pamunkey Indians of their land. Berkeley was trying to leave it to them. Berkeley responded to Bacons actions by sending 300 men to Bacons HQ to force him and his 200 men out. Berkeley then issued two petitions. One stating that Bacon’s soldiers would be pardoned should they leave Bacon and return home. Bacon ignored Berkeley’s petitions and headed after the Occaneechi Indians. Berkeley offered Bacon a pardon, but Bacon had to return to England to get it. Bacon did not receive this pardon from Berkeley because the House of Burgesses, to which Bacon was recently elected due to his heroics of the people reputation, rejected the offer. Bacon came to the House of Burgesses in June of 1676 but was caught by Berkeley and taken to Berkeley. Berkeley pardoned Bacon after he apologized. Berkeley may have wasted his grace as it was only the prelude to the rest. Bacon was to take over Berkeley’s seat at the table. Bacon, during a heated discussion about how best to handle Indians, stormed the house. He returned with his men and demanded a Berkeley commission to go hunt Indians. Berkeley called Bacons’ bluff by exposing his chest and saying, ‘Here shoot at me before God. Shoot fair’. Bacon realized that he would be better off not shooting Berkeley, so he ordered his men to attack the House of Burgesses. Bacons plan succeeded and Berkeley relented, giving Bacon all the power he needed to fight Indians. Berkeley’s power was weakening at this stage, so he left Jamestown. He washed away all his sins. Bacons was the leader for a short time, roughly between July and September of 1676. Bacon delivered his Declaration of the People, which he had written to the people of Jamestown by the 30th of July. Bacon argued that Berkeley was corrupt, showed favoritism to him, and only served his interests by being governor. The people of Jamestown also took an oath after his declaration to show their support, both verbally and physically. Berkeley’s soldiers managed to sneak in and disable Bacons ship, even though Bacons had taken precautions. Bacon lost support rapidly after this. Nathaniel Bacon died on October 26th, 1671 from the Bloody Flux as his influence and health decreased. Berkeley returned to power quickly after Bacon’s death and was able reassert control over the populace. Despite the fact that he had previously given Bacon numerous chances, Berkeley did not extend this same kindness to other rebels who had assisted Bacon in his rise to prominence. Berkeley hung 23 dissidents in total and revoked several prominent Bacon supporters’ property rights. Berkeley died in England shortly after his return, but not before an investigative panel sent back a detailed report on the rebellion. There were a few discoveries and misconceptions that grew out of the rebellion. This confrontation was a catalyst for the revolution that would occur nearly 100 years later. The role was the same, as a group rose up against the government for their own interests. While the roles may have been similar, there were differences between the two sides. Bacon was able to achieve his goal because of the prejudices against Indians and corruption within Berkeley’s administration. Berkeley’s Men made an interesting discovery on their way to Jamestown. The hallucinogenic properties of Datura Stramonium, the Jimson weed was discovered. According to a legend, soldiers who ingested this weed suffered for 11 days. Bacon’s rebellion was an intricate conflict that included many mistakes, both tacit and tactical. This is a very important chapter of America’s history. It shows that Americans are willing to fight a corrupted government. This early part of American history is very important for historians, and Americans alike. It shows the American people drifting from the British Empire and becoming more self-reliant even a century before the Declaration of Independence.

How The Black Death Pandemic Affected The Lifes Of People

A deadly epidemic struck Europe in 1346-1352 at a staggering rate. The pandemic became known as the Black Death centuries later. This name was created by a mistaken translation of a Latin word ‘atra’, which meant both a ‘black’ color and a ‘terrible thing’. The plague was caused by Yersinia spp., which is prevalent in areas populated with wild rodents. It killed 25 million Europeans alone. That’s about a third of Europe’s population. It has been suggested that the disease was spread by traders along the Silk Road, which ran along Lake Issyk-Kul. This vast population decline led to an alteration in lifestyle as well as the destruction of the feudal society.

The social structure changed dramatically after the Black Death as the feudal class system could not be sustained. This had negative consequences for the monarchy, government and church. Due to the shortage of skilled workers, in particular those who required specialized training, there was a slight upward mobility. The government passed laws to try to bring fees back to the pre-plague levels. In the aftermath of the epidemic, the government enacted laws to reduce fees. As people became more desperate, there was a noticeable increase in crime. William Langland wrote in “Piers Plowman” that God was deaf today and would not hear us. The Church had lost countless members due to its inability to control the plague. The plague pandemic had a number of unanticipated and anticipated consequences that affected Europe. ‘…the Black Death, which is believed to have removed weaker individuals from Europe in a massive scale, may have represented an important force of natural selectivity. A study of skeletal relics in a London graveyard shows that people living before the Black death were more likely to die at a younger age. The fact that the number of people who lived beyond the age of 70 increased from 10% to 20% after the Black Death confirms DeWitte’s theory and the previous studies which proved that human populations can evolve in the face of large-scale illnesses, because gene variants allow some people to fight certain infections better than other people. It is true that the fall of the feudal society had negative impacts on the nobility. However, the benefits to the peasantry were enormous. They received higher wages, since lords began to demand more workers. Serfdom became a powerful force against the nobility. Positive effects like the ones mentioned above have a long-lasting impact on society.

It is evident that, despite the massive loss of life, the Black Death had a lasting impact on the economy and social structure. The loss of countless relatives, close neighbors and friends created a feeling of grief and hopelessness. Agnolo’s wife and five kids were killed by the epidemic. Some tried to cause death by dancing, singing or drinking on the street. After this shock wave, apathy took over. They did not care about their appearance and neglected the mundane chores. English was born, a language that has evolved into the modern English. After the death of nearly all monks who were literate, Europeans decided to develop a language that was easier than Latin to use in coping books. After the Black Death, society was permanently changed.

The Black Death’s aftermath had both positive as well as negative impacts on society. In the wake of the Black Death, civilisation made many improvements to try to overcome the effects. These have continued to influence modern day life.