How To Edit An Essay

The process of editing an essay can be tedious but it is a vital step in ensuring your essay is polished and ready for submission. Here are the steps you need to take to edit an essay:

1. Read the essay aloud

Reading your essay aloud can help you to catch errors that you may have missed when reading it silently. It can also help you to get a sense of the overall flow of the essay.

2. Check the grammar and spelling

It is important to ensure that your grammar and spelling are correct before submitting your essay. Use a grammar checker or proofreading service to help you to correct any errors.

3. Check the formatting

Make sure that your essay is formatted correctly according to the instructions provided by your instructor.

4. Check the tone and voice

Make sure that your essay has a consistent tone and voice throughout. Ensure that your tone is appropriate for the topic and the audience.

5. Check the content

Check that your essay covers the topic adequately and that all of the information is accurate. If you are using sources, make sure that you have properly cited them.

6. Fix any errors

Once you have completed the above steps, go through your essay and fix any errors that you have found. This may include correcting grammar mistakes, fixing formatting issues, and clarifying confusing passages.

By following these steps, you can ensure that your essay is polished and ready for submission.

Polishing your work to perfection can often be a challenging task. Even while navigating topics like “How To Edit An Essay,” many writers seek assistance to ensure their piece is both engaging and error-free. This is where GrabMyEssay steps in, offering tailored services to elevate the quality of your work. With their team of professional editors and writers, every essay turns into a masterpiece of clarity and coherence. Don’t let minor errors or structural hiccups bring down the quality of your content; let experts handle it for a flawless finish!

Understanding the Importance of Editing

It is often said that the first and last drafts of a paper are the only ones that count. This may be true, but it is also important to make sure that the paper in between is as good as it can be. This is where editing comes in.

Editing is the process of reviewing and revising a paper for grammar, spelling, punctuation, and organization. It is important to remember that editing is not the same as proofreading. Proofreading is the process of checking for mistakes after the editing process is complete.

There are a few things to keep in mind when editing a paper. First, read the paper thoroughly and make sure you understand the main points. Next, focus on the structure of the paper. Is it easy to follow? Are the paragraphs well-organized? Are there any holes in the argument?

After you have addressed the structure of the paper, focus on the grammar, spelling, and punctuation. Make sure the sentences are properly constructed and that there are no errors. Finally, check the formatting of the paper. Is it consistent throughout?

Editing is an important step in the writing process, and it is essential to make sure that the paper is as good as it can be. By following the steps listed above, you can ensure that your paper is well-edited and ready for submission.

Reviewing for Grammar and Spelling Errors

There are many different ways to edit an essay for grammar and spelling errors. The best way to do this is to first read the essay through once to get a general understanding of the content. Then, read the essay again and focus on specific grammar and spelling errors.

To edit for grammar errors, you can use a grammar checker tool, such as Grammarly. This tool will scan your essay for errors and suggest corrections. You can also use a grammar book to help you identify and correct common grammar errors.

To edit for spelling errors, you can use a spell checker tool, such as Microsoft Word. This tool will scan your essay for errors and suggest corrections. You can also use a dictionary to help you spell words correctly.

Checking for Clarity and Coherence

When editing an essay, it is important to check for clarity and coherence. Clarity refers to how well the essay is written and how easy it is to understand. Coherence refers to the order and logic of the essay.

To check for clarity, read the essay aloud. This will help you to catch any mistakes in grammar or spelling and will also help you to catch run-on sentences and confusing paragraphs.

To check for coherence, read the essay backwards. This will help you to catch any logical errors.

Evaluating Sentence Structure and Style

There are many things to evaluate when editing an essay, including sentence structure and style. A strong sentence structure makes for easy reading and comprehension, while good style makes the essay more interesting to read.

One way to evaluate sentence structure is to make sure that each sentence is properly constructed. This means that the subject and verb should agree, there should be proper use of pronouns, and the sentences should be logically ordered. To ensure proper subject-verb agreement, make sure that the subject is actually doing the verb. For example, “The dog runs” is correct, while “A dog runs” is not because “a dog” is not the one doing the running. To check for pronoun usage, make sure that the pronoun matches the antecedent. For example, “The dog barks at the cat” is correct, while “The cat barks at the dog” is not because “cat” is not the one doing the barking. To ensure proper sentence order, make sure that the most important information is at the beginning of the sentence.

Another way to evaluate sentence structure is to make sure that each sentence is concise and easy to read. This means that there should be no extra words, and the sentences should be logically ordered. To cut down on extra words, get rid of unnecessary adjectives and adverbs. For example, the sentence “The very hungry caterpillar ate a lot of food” can be rewritten as “The hungry caterpillar ate a lot of food.” To ensure that the sentences are logically ordered, make sure that there is a logical connection between the sentences.

In addition to evaluating sentence structure, it is also important to evaluate style. Style refers to the way the essay is written, and there are many things to consider, such as tone, word choice, and sentence length. To evaluate tone, make sure that the essay is written in a way that is appropriate for the topic. For example, if the essay is about a serious topic, the tone should be serious, while if the essay is about a funny topic, the tone should be humorous. To evaluate word choice, make sure that the words are appropriate for the tone and the audience. For example, if the audience is a group of fifth graders, the words should be simple and easy to understand, while if the audience is a group of college professors, the words can be more complex. To evaluate sentence length, make sure that the sentences are not too long or too short.

Ensuring Proper Formatting and Citations

When you are writing an essay, it is important to ensure that your formatting and citations are correct. A well-formatted and correctly cited essay will impress your professor and show that you are knowledgeable about the subject. In this article, we will discuss how to format an essay correctly and how to cite sources properly.

Formatting an Essay

There are a few guidelines you should follow when formatting an essay:

-The essay should be typed, double-spaced, with one-inch margins on all sides.

-The essay should be 12-point font, preferably Times New Roman.

-The first line of each paragraph should be indented one-half inch.

-The title of the essay should be centered at the top of the page.

-If you are using a header, it should be located in the upper-left corner of the page and should include your name, the date, and the course name.

-If you are using footnotes, they should be located at the bottom of the page and should be numbered consecutively.

-If you are using a bibliography, it should be located at the end of the essay and should be alphabetized by the author’s last name.

Citing Sources

When you are citing sources, you should use a format that is appropriate for the type of source you are using. There are several different formats, but the most common are MLA and APA.

MLA Format

When using MLA format, you should include the author’s name, the title of the source, the name of the publisher, the date of publication, and the page numbers. Here is an example of how to cite a source using MLA format:

Smith, John. “How to Format an Essay.” The Writing Center. The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 01 Mar. 2016. Web. 10 Apr. 2016.

APA Format

When using APA format, you should include the author’s name, the title of the source, the publication year, and the page numbers. Here is an example of how to cite a source using APA format:

Smith, John. (2016). How to format an essay. The Writing Center, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Retrieved from

Seeking Peer or Professional Feedback

Editing an essay can be a daunting task. It can be hard to know where to start, or even where to look for feedback. Seeking help from a peer or professional can be a great way to get the feedback you need to make your essay shine.

One of the best ways to get feedback is to ask someone you know who is good at writing. Ask them to read your essay and to give you feedback. Be sure to ask them specific questions about your essay. For example, you might ask them to evaluate your thesis statement, or to comment on your organization and development.

If you don’t know anyone who is good at writing, you can seek help from a professional editor. Professional editors can help you to improve your essay in a number of ways. They can help you to improve your grammar and punctuation, and they can also help you to improve your organization and development.

Seeking feedback from a peer or professional can be a great way to improve your essay. Be sure to ask specific questions, and be sure to listen to the feedback that you receive.

Restorative Justice In UK Schools ‘could Help Reduce Exclusions’

Campaigners are calling on the government to support the implementation of “restorative practice” in schools, which prioritises conflict resolution over punishment. The Restorative Justice Council (RJC), best known for its work in the criminal justice system, hopes to reduce the number of exclusions by expanding its existing programmes. In 2015-2016, almost 6,700 children were permanently excluded; equivalent to 35 children every school day. Rates of expulsion have risen each year since 2012-13.  Restorative practice in relation to schools includes a variety of techniques to build strong relationships and address conflict constructively. The RJC aims to challenge zero tolerance systems which are seen as punishing minor breaches of regulation. 


The RJC is promoting three short films feature children from primary and secondary schools who explain how restorative justice works. The children also discuss their roles as “restorative ambassadors”, helping their peers to solve problems and to develop empathy. Restorative Justice Council’s interim CEO, Chris Straker, who was a teacher himself for over 30 years, understands that schools are under great pressure to achieve progress. Straker warned that exclusions, both temporary and permanent, may compromise the young person’s employment prospects as well as educational opportunities, in some instances leading to mental health problems and future criminal behaviour. Restorative approaches have long-term benefits not only for individuals but also for wider society.


One example of successful positive reform can be found at the Joseph Norton academy in Kirklees, West Yorkshire, where a restorative approach has led to a significant reduction in exclusions. The academy accommodates pupils aged between 6 and 17 with complex emotional, social and mental health needs that can make the behaviour of the children particularly challenging. Restorative approaches address behaviour by seeking to understand the feelings behind the behaviour; this leads to improvements in participation and outcomes. 




How I Became A UN Interpreter

Being an interpreter may seem glamorous with all the travel involved, but the reality is much more prosaic. While it can be fascinating to work with people from all over the world, it is also high-pressure work that involves a lot of time spent on easyJet flights.

My upbringing did not lend itself to a career in languages. I grew up in north London, my parents were not linguists, and we did not go on holidays to France. However, I discovered a love for French in an after-school language club when I was 10 years old. When given the opportunity to learn German, Latin, or Russian in my second year of secondary school, I chose Russian despite barely even hearing about the country.

I found Russian to be a puzzle and a challenge, with noun declensions and cases to navigate. I realized that language learning is about building stepping stones and watching the language come together before your eyes. My first time abroad was on a school exchange to Belarus, which opened my eyes to a whole new world of exploration.

My A-levels in French and Russian were passable, but my year studying abroad in St Petersburg convinced me to pursue languages at university. My first-degree in French and Russian resulted in a first, but it was teaching English in Russia after graduation that helped me improve my skills. I had to make Russian friends and communicate without the help of other native English speakers. When I returned home, I applied to work as a linguist at GCHQ, undergoing six months of interviews, aptitude tests, and vetting before being accepted.

My job at GCHQ involved translating, transcribing, and analyzing material for intelligence purposes. The subject matter was interesting and engaging, but I couldn’t discuss the details outside of work. After completing a Master’s in interpreting at the University of Bath, I took the UN interpreting test, which is notoriously difficult. Passing the test led to a new career opportunity, working on UN missions abroad. It took about a year to establish myself as a freelance interpreter, but now I work primarily from Russian and French.

Interpreters work in pairs, trading off interpreting for half-hour periods. It can be stressful work, with communication having significant impacts on people’s lives. It is not always possible to translate literally, so the key is interpreting idea by idea. When I don’t understand something, I take a step back, think about the context, and try to piece together the meaning. It requires quick thinking and plenty of coffee.

As a language interpreter for international organizations such as the UN, I face a myriad of challenges on a daily basis. The most obvious one is the diversity of accents. For instance, French-speaking African republics have particular accents which are tough to get accustomed to. They use an intricate vocabulary and complex language patterns, which can prove challenging even for fluent speakers. To add to the pressure, most of my work is also webcast, meaning that a significant number of people are listening in live. Some events are more high-profile than others, such as the UN human rights council session, which is both political and webcasted, making it particularly tricky.

Four years into this career, I’m still trying to balance my demanding job and caring for my 18-month-old daughter. I resumed my work duties when she was only five months old, and my husband came to Geneva with me to help me manage. Now that we’re back in Gloucestershire, I try to schedule work trips spanning a few days at a time, allowing me time to be home with my daughter. Thankfully, the pay is worth the sacrifice, and I try to work around ten days in a month. While many interpreters are single, being freelance works for me and my family, providing flexibility and the ability to take on more stimulating work.

Looking ahead, my language skills have taken me to different places over the years, such as Bali, Nairobi, Vienna, and across Europe. I’ll be heading to Copenhagen and Moscow soon, too. This profession has been an adventure, and I appreciate that I never know what’s next – that’s what makes it exciting! As for me, I never plan too far ahead, as this job doesn’t allow for certainty. But that’s part of the thrill. My name is Helen Reynolds-Brown, and I interpret Russian and French for international organizations, such as the UN.

Alison Richard: The Quiet Revolutionary

On Friday, November 10, 2006, the Guardian published a correction regarding the word "bailiwick." It was clarified that the term refers to an area under particular authority, derived from the rule of a bailie or bailiff, and not from bailey, the outer wall of a castle.

In another correction printed on Thursday, November 2, 2006, the Guardian provided an update to an article that mentioned a member of the Cambridge University investment board. The individual’s name was David Swenson, not Svenson.

Alison Richard, the Vice-Chancellor of Cambridge, does not believe in simply telling her colleagues what to do. In her fourth year in the position, she prefers to challenge them to think about problems and engage in debate. During her October 1st speech, which was actually given on October 2nd due to Cambridge’s unique customs, she expressed her concern about the lack of focus on undergraduate teaching in research-intensive universities and the challenges of combining research and teaching. Richard believes that the current system experiences "ambiguities and confusion" regarding the roles of college-based staff and the pressure on faculty-based staff to excel in research.

Although Richard did not provide a solution, she speaks confidently about her bailiwick, despite the opposing issues of Oxford’s Vice-Chancellor, John Hood, who is facing resistance to his governance reforms. Throughout her four years in office, Richard has focused on building a team to "mobilise and catalyse the momentum of the institution" and has eliminated the university’s budget deficit. Additionally, the university has shifted its budget to the schools within Cambridge and there is a constant effort to balance the importance of allowing independent research while promoting collaborative efforts between colleagues.

When Richard arrived in 2003, she had to handle the controversial topic of top-up fees. However, she managed to consolidate the colleges and her new colleagues to design a needs-blind bursary system, which was the first of its kind announced. The successful implementation of this program helped her to launch governance reforms, a £1bn fundraising campaign for Cambridge’s 800th anniversary in 2009, and a new pay structure. Despite some opposition, the university’s new rules on intellectual property rights were ultimately approved.

The perception was that running a campaign for the vice-chancellor’s position at Cambridge University was too big of a task with 31 colleges to consider. However, the vice-chancellor’s experience is that there is a sense of purpose amongst all the colleges. Although it is more challenging to streamline admissions and fundraising efforts when working together, it is possible with a defined goal. The message is that they can either compete and waste time and resources or collaborate and raise more money. However, the vice-chancellor did not force anyone to work together, emphasizing that telling people what to do is not an effective strategy. She believes they are all in this together. Colleges are essential, but they have no real existence without the academic departments and the University of Cambridge. But she thinks unanimous agreement is not desirable as there should be room for debate and rigorous debate. The vice-chancellor has turned her attention to promoting international links amongst the top research universities. She is concerned about the underfunding of undergraduate education and social justice. Cambridge has set up a bursary system to achieve a level playing field. To enable poorer students to attend university, living expenses also need covering, and the bursary system should be adjusted if necessary. Her long-term aim is to free Cambridge from overdependence on the government, and she hopes to achieve this through fundraising efforts. She opposes the idea of privatizing the university and prefers the pragmatic approach of growing themselves out of dependence on the government. They are considering a voucher system in the future where the government provides needs-based bursaries to students to carry with them. However, this is a long way off.

Alison Richard received a tremendous response from the university and alumni after her speech in October, though it was ignored by the press. She is open to new ideas and debates regarding teaching methods and what students should learn. Having spent many years in the American system, she originally thought that students should start with a broad education and specialize later, but many in Cambridge believe the opposite. Richard admits that she doesn’t know the answers to some of the questions surrounding this debate, as she is new to the system and hasn’t taught in it. She believes that implementing top-down directives for curriculums would be harmful. As vice-chancellor, her responsibility is to ensure that topics are being discussed and thought about. It remains to be seen whether Richard, who has focused on Cambridge, will throw out new challenges on a national level.

Alison Richard is the vice-chancellor of Cambridge University, overseeing 31 colleges, 8,500 staff, and 18,000 students. The university has an annual turnover of £646m and net assets of £1.5bn. Richard was an anthropology student at Newnham College, Cambridge, before earning her doctorate at London University. She moved to Yale University in 1972 and became a professor of anthropology in 1986 and a provost in 1994. Her research specializes in the lemurs of Madagascar. She is married and has two grown-up daughters.

Pat Thompson Obituary

Pat Thompson, a prominent member of Oxford University’s history faculty, has passed away at the age of 89. Born in Preston, Lancashire to a civil servant, he relocated to Northern Ireland in 1923, and later moved to London where he studied history at Magdalen College, Oxford. Thompson excelled academically, achieving a first-class honours degree in modern history in 1941. He then served as a glider-paratrooper in the Worcestershire Yeomanry but was wounded during the Normandy campaign in 1944. Following the war, he returned to Oxford as a graduate to work on 19th-century political history.

In 1947, Thompson became a history tutor at Wadham College, where he remained until his retirement. He was a passionate academic who played an instrumental role in the "Oxford school" of labour history, which focused on trade-union history, the Labour party, and industrial relations. He co-wrote the first volume of A History of British Trade Unions Since 1889 with Hugh Clegg and Alan Fox, which was published in 1964 and had a profound impact on British historiography. Thompson also had a close interest in Gladstone, and his work focused on the "radical" or "progressive" tradition in British history.

Thompson was a perfectionist who did not produce as much academic work as he would have liked. Still, he was an outstanding graduate supervisor who imparted the virtues of the Oxford school, attention to sources, and an unwillingness to accept conclusions that could not be partly grounded in fact. He was survived by his daughter Ruth, son Johnny, and grandson Paul.

Melvyn Bragg, a former student of Thompson’s at Wadham College, described him as a kind and easy-to-talk-to man who passed on his passion and deep knowledge of history to many students. His role was central and influential at a time when Oxford had few tenured historians of the late-19th and 20th centuries, but many graduates who wanted to study that period. His legacy lives on, with his dedicated graduates occupying positions in universities throughout the English-speaking world.

Pat was an incredibly supportive figure. He expressed a genuine interest in our work in drama and films, and always had an eagerness to gather and swell his abundant source of college tidbits. Being a proud college man, he cherished every aspect of it. Time and again, he and Mary graciously extended their invitation to their house, providing us with a remarkable experience and a privilege to cherish. Fortunately, I had the pleasure of getting to know his family better and keeping in touch with Pat throughout the years. My most remarkable and treasured memory occurred last year when we dined together in Oxford for over three hours. It was the first time we were able to spend such an extended period alone. Above all, his desire was to exchange information on his past pupils. He exuded a sense of a man whose academic career delivered immense gratification, and he imbued his pupils with the same satisfaction.

Bob Burchell Obituary

Robert Burchell, my dearly departed friend and former colleague, was a renowned historian of the United States. His expertise contributed to a significant rise in the popularity of the subject in the United Kingdom, where he served as a professor of American history at the University of Manchester. Additionally, Bob was the first director of the Eccles Centre for American Studies at the British Library.

Bob grew up in Plymouth, where he was raised by his parents, Lucy (nee Symons) and Arthur Burchell, an electrician at the Devonport submarine base. As a young child, he and his family relocated to South Africa for several years after their home was bombed during World War II. Upon returning to England, Bob attended Plymouth college and later earned his degree in modern history from Oxford University in 1963. He also spent a year at the University of California, Berkeley.

Bob began his career in academia as a lecturer at the University of Manchester in 1965 and was promoted to professor of American history after several years. His contributions to the study of American history were instrumental in the UK’s efforts to expand its study of the subject, serving as the chair of the British Association for American Studies from 1987 to 1991. It was during this time that he became the first director of the Eccles Centre.

Bob also excelled in his research, eventually publishing a book entitled The San Francisco Irish, 1848-1880. The book examined how Irish immigrants adjusted successfully to life on the Pacific coast by combining statistical data with personal accounts. Throughout his career, he challenged the conventional interpretations of American elections and immigration patterns and worked to improve resources for libraries and visiting academic fellowships.

Apart from his academic achievements, Bob was also an avid china, glass, and Penguin book collector, along with being very private. His occasional sardonic teaching style was matched with a cultivated eccentricity that left a lasting impression with his friends. He was a master statistician and excellent administrator, relying on his height, wit, and political astuteness to great effect.

In 2006, Bob entered into a civil partnership with Stephen Torr. He is survived by Stephen, his nephew, Mathew, niece, Becky, great-niece, Davey, and great-nephew, Jarrah. His brother, David, predeceased him.

LGBT Event With Peter Tatchell To Go Ahead Despite Free Speech Row

Despite a controversy over freedom of speech involving prominent gay rights activist Peter Tatchell, an event geared towards challenging prejudice against LGBT people will proceed as planned. The organisers of a talk at Canterbury Christ Church University expressed disappointment on 13 February after the National Union of Students’ (NUS) LGBT representative, Fran Cowling, withdrew from the event. Cowling accused Tatchell of racism and transphobia, stating that she did not wish to share a stage with him. In an email to the event’s organisers, Cowling referred to Tatchell’s signing of an open letter that had appeared in the Observer, railing against the growing trend for universities to suppress views that contradict their own. Cowling claimed that this constituted support for transphobic individuals. Although organisers noted that there had been no other objections to Tatchell’s participation, neither Cowling nor the NUS was willing to explain her allegations further, when asked by The Guardian.

The event is intended to foster debate on whether the best path forward for the LGBT community is reform and equality, or social transformation. Other speakers planned for the event, such as Sue Sanders, co-chair of Schools Out and organiser of LGBT History Month, stated that they intended to share a platform with Tatchell and expressed confusion and concern over Cowling’s allegations. Professor Bee Scherer of Queer Paradigms, who will also be speaking at the event, remarked that she disagreed with the NUS, and expressed concern about the difference between a trans ally with a different opinion on freedom of speech and somebody who was transphobic. Tatchell also argued that Cowling had the right to refuse to speak on the same platform, but not to accuse him without evidence of wrongdoing. Organiser John Gilmore expressed disappointment that the NUS had refused to come and attend the discussion concerning “re-radicalising queers”.

MRI Scientists Win Nobel Prize

Sir Peter Mansfield, a prominent British scientist, has been bestowed with the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his notable contributions to the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) invention. He was jointly awarded the honor with the US scientist, Paul Lauterbur. Both Nobel laureates discovered techniques that paved the way for the extensive applications of MRI in hospitals. MRI utilizes the non-invasive mechanism of generating three-dimensional imagery of the human body, which has been particularly useful in dealing with brain and spinal cord injuries and illnesses. The Nobel assembly at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden acknowledged their crucial findings that led to the development of modern magnetic resonance imaging.

Sir Peter is positioned in the Magnetic Resonance Center at the University of Nottingham, where he began his lectureship in 1964. He has been felicitated with the Wellcome medal, a fellowship at the Royal Society, and a knighthood in 1993. Stephen Cox, the executive secretary of the Royal Society, congratulated Sir Peter for winning the most prestigious award in science, making it a hat-trick of wins for UK scientists. Cox also acknowledged Sir Peter’s work in developing the utilization of gradients in the magnetic field and mathematically analyzing signals, paving the way for the invention of a useful imaging technique that has significantly improved diagnostics in many diseases.

Professor Lauterbur of the University of Illinois, who has also been awarded numerous awards for his contributions to MRI, shared the prize with Sir Peter for the groundbreaking discoveries in the application of magnetic resonance technology to visualize different structures. Thanks to their exceptional work that is now an essential diagnostic tool in medical research and diagnostics.

DfE Calls For Boost To Starting Teachers’ Salaries In England

The UK government is seeking to increase teachers’ starting salaries in England by over 16% in the next two years. The Department for Education has urged the school teacher review body (STRB) to lift the minimum for new teachers by 8.9% in September and a further 7.1% the following year. This would take qualified teachers’ starting salaries from £25,714 to £30,000 in September 2023. The government’s move is in response to its 2019 Conservative election manifesto. However, teachers with more experience will only see tapering rises, with the highest end of the pay scale increasing by just 2% in 2023-24. Experienced teachers and senior school leaders will receive an increase of just 3% in 2022-23 and 2% in 2023-24.

In its submission, the Department for Education stated that the pay rises would come from existing school budgets, creating a potential shortfall for other areas. On this basis, the department considered "substantially higher" increases to be not feasible, suggesting that pay increases across the board would eat into school funding. The pay rises for new teachers are intended to help to recruit and retain young teachers, with increased salaries for experienced teachers potentially seen as unnecessary on this point. However, the pay rises are not predicted to have a significant impact on retention rates, with only 0.25% improvement expected and approximately 1,000 more teachers staying in the profession.

Four main teaching unions submitted a joint appeal to the STRB, requesting equivalent pay increases for all teachers and school leaders. The National Association of Schoolmasters Union of Women Teachers (NASUWT) requested a 12% pay increase across the board. The National Education Union urged the STRB to recommend that all teachers and school leaders receive the same increases as proposed for new teachers and for the government to fully fund it.

In separate news, the University and College Union announced five more days of strikes this month, with staff at 68 universities planning a walkout over pay, pension and working conditions. Employers were said to have failed to make concessions, including on changes to pensions, which the union said could lead to cuts of 35% in retirement income for typical members. The strikes are expected to affect over a million students.

Harry Goulbourne Obituary

Harry Goulbourne, a pioneering scholar and one of the first black professors in the UK, recently passed away at the age of 73. He was highly regarded for his work in qualitative social science and authored or co-authored a dozen books, such as Ethnicity and Nationalism in Post-Imperial Britain (1991), Race Relations in Britain Since 1945 (1998), and Caribbean Transnational Experience (2002). Harry’s research focused not only on the black community but also on individuals who shared similar experiences of migration or exclusion, regardless of race or ethnicity. His main interests included politics, race and ethnicity, transnationalism, migration, and Caribbean families.

The fifth of seven children, Harry was born in Clarendon, Jamaica to Lucy (nee Mickell), a market trader, and Albert Goulbourne, a small-scale farmer and tailor. In the 1950s, his parents migrated to Britain and settled in Camberwell in south London, where his father worked at the Woolwich Arsenal. Harry joined them in 1959 and experienced the racial politics of the playground at Peckham Manor school before being taken under the wing of enlightened and progressive teachers who developed his curiosity and intellect.

As an undergraduate at Lancaster University, Harry co-founded a group known as Contemporary Blacks, which was influenced by Marxism and Black Power. Later, he organized (with John La Rose) one of the first summer schools for black children. After obtaining a history degree in 1971, he spent a year teaching at his old school before pursuing a doctorate at Sussex University. In 1978, he became a politics lecturer at the University of Dar es Salaam in Tanzania, which was then a center for many of the intellectuals of the liberation movements around the world.

In 1980, Harry became a senior lecturer in politics and subsequently dean of the faculty of social sciences at the Jamaican campus of the University of the West Indies (1980-86). Following this, he returned to Britain to be principal research fellow at the Centre for Research in Ethnic Relations at the University of Warwick (1986-1994). He then became director of research for social sciences and arts at (now) the University of Gloucester (1994-98). Finally, in 1998, he became the chair of sociology at London South Bank University, where he set up and was director of the Race and Ethnicity Research Unit, which he ran until retiring in 2011.

Harry was known for his generosity and passion, and encouraged young people, especially black scholars. He was a kind, gentle, intelligent, and loving man with a passion for literature, music, and art. Additionally, he was an accomplished poet. Harry is survived by his wife, Selina (nee Rebelo), an academic lawyer whom he married in 1973, their sons, Hugh and Neil, and three grandchildren.